Professor Daniel Wolpert FMedSci FRS

Daniel Wolpert

University position


Professor Daniel Wolpert FMedSci FRS is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.


Department of Engineering


Home page (personal home page)

Research Themes

Systems and Computational Neuroscience

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience


The group uses engineering approaches to understand how the human brain controls movement. The work includes both computational modelling and experimental approaches using robotic and virtual reality interfaces. Research areas include motor planning and optimal control, probabilistic (Bayesian) models, motor predictive and modular approaches to motor learning.

Research Focus


motor control


computational methods

neural circuit

Clinical conditions

No direct clinical relevance


Behavioural analysis

Computational modelling


No collaborators listed

Associated News Items

Key publications

Körding KP, Wolpert DM (2004), “Bayesian integration in sensorimotor learning” Nature 427:244-247 Details



Acerbi L, Vijayakumar S, Wolpert DM (2014), “On the origins of suboptimality in human probabilistic inference.” PLoS Comput Biol 10(6):e1003661 Details

Berniker M, Franklin DW, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM, Kording K (2014), “Motor learning of novel dynamics is not represented in a single global coordinate system: evaluation of mixed coordinate representations and local learning.” J Neurophysiol 111(6):1165-82 Details

Burk D, Ingram JN, Franklin DW, Shadlen MN, Wolpert DM (2014), “Motor effort alters changes of mind in sensorimotor decision making.” PLoS One 9(3):e92681 Details

Shergill SS, White TP, Joyce DW, Bays PM, Wolpert DM, Frith CD (2014), “Functional magnetic resonance imaging of impaired sensory prediction in schizophrenia.” JAMA Psychiatry 71(1):28-35 Details

Wolpe N, Wolpert DM, Rowe JB (2014), “Seeing what you want to see: priors for one's own actions represent exaggerated expectations of success.” Front Behav Neurosci 8:232 Details

Zhou K, Wolpert DM, De Zeeuw CI (2014), “Motor systems: reaching out and grasping the molecular tools.” Curr Biol 24(7):R269-71 Details


Dimitriou M, Wolpert DM, Franklin DW (2013), “The temporal evolution of feedback gains rapidly update to task demands.” J Neurosci 33(26):10898-909 Details

Franklin DW, Selen LP, Franklin S, Wolpert DM (2013), “Selection and control of limb posture for stability.” Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2013:5626-9 Details

Houlsby NM, Huszár F, Ghassemi MM, Orbán G, Wolpert DM, Lengyel M (2013), “Cognitive tomography reveals complex, task-independent mental representations.” Curr Biol 23(21):2169-75 Details

Howard IS, Wolpert DM, Franklin DW (2013), “The effect of contextual cues on the encoding of motor memories.” J Neurophysiol 109(10):2632-44 Details

Ingram JN, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2013), “Context-dependent decay of motor memories during skill acquisition.” Curr Biol 23(12):1107-12 Details

Shergill SS, White TP, Joyce DW, Bays PM, Wolpert DM, Frith CD (2013), “Modulation of somatosensory processing by action.” Neuroimage 70:356-62 Details


Acerbi L, Wolpert DM, Vijayakumar S (2012), “Internal representations of temporal statistics and feedback calibrate motor-sensory interval timing.” PLoS Comput Biol 8(11):e1002771 Details

Dimitriou M, Franklin DW, Wolpert DM (2012), “Task-dependent coordination of rapid bimanual motor responses.” J Neurophysiol 107(3):890-901 Details

Franklin S, Wolpert DM, Franklin DW (2012), “Visuomotor feedback gains upregulate during the learning of novel dynamics.” J Neurophysiol 108(2):467-78 Details

Howard IS, Ingram JN, Franklin DW, Wolpert DM (2012), “Gone in 0.6 seconds: the encoding of motor memories depends on recent sensorimotor states.” J Neurosci 32(37):12756-68 Details

Selen LP, Shadlen MN, Wolpert DM (2012), “Deliberation in the motor system: reflex gains track evolving evidence leading to a decision.” J Neurosci 32(7):2276-86 Details

Turnham EJ, Braun DA, Wolpert DM (2012), “Facilitation of learning induced by both random and gradual visuomotor task variation.” J Neurophysiol 107(4):1111-22 Details

Wolpert DM, Landy MS (2012), “Motor control is decision-making.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 22(6):996-1003 Details


Braun DA, Nagengast AJ, Wolpert DM (2011), “Risk-sensitivity in sensorimotor control.” Front Hum Neurosci 5:1 Details

Braun DA, Ortega PA, Wolpert DM (2011), “Motor coordination: when two have to act as one.” Exp Brain Res 211(3-4):631-41 Details

Franklin DW, Wolpert DM (2011), “Feedback modulation: a window into cortical function.” Curr Biol 21(22):R924-6 Details

Franklin DW, Wolpert DM (2011), “Computational mechanisms of sensorimotor control.” Neuron 72(3):425-42 Details

Howard IS, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2011), “Separate representations of dynamics in rhythmic and discrete movements: evidence from motor learning.” J Neurophysiol 105(4):1722-31 Details

Ingram JN, Howard IS, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2011), “A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.” PLoS Comput Biol 7(9):e1002196 Details

Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2011), “Naturalistic approaches to sensorimotor control.” Prog Brain Res 191:3-29 Details

Nagengast AJ, Braun DA, Wolpert DM (2011), “Risk sensitivity in a motor task with speed-accuracy trade-off.” J Neurophysiol 105(6):2668-74 Details

Nagengast AJ, Braun DA, Wolpert DM (2011), “Risk-sensitivity and the mean-variance trade-off: decision making in sensorimotor control.” Proc Biol Sci 278(1716):2325-32 Details

Orbán G, Wolpert DM (2011), “Representations of uncertainty in sensorimotor control.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 21(4):629-35 Details

Turnham EJ, Braun DA, Wolpert DM (2011), “Inferring visuomotor priors for sensorimotor learning.” PLoS Comput Biol 7(3):e1001112 Details

Wolpert DM, Diedrichsen J, Flanagan JR (2011), “Principles of sensorimotor learning.” Nat Rev Neurosci 12(12):739-51 Details


Braun DA, Mehring C, Wolpert DM (2010), “Structure learning in action.” Behav Brain Res 206(2):157-65 Details

Braun DA, Waldert S, Aertsen A, Wolpert DM, Mehring C (2010), “Structure learning in a sensorimotor association task.” PLoS One 5(1):e8973 Details

Howard IS, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2010), “Context-dependent partitioning of motor learning in bimanual movements.” J Neurophysiol 104(4):2082-91 Details

Ingram JN, Howard IS, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2010), “Multiple grasp-specific representations of tool dynamics mediate skillful manipulation.” Curr Biol 20(7):618-23 Details

Nagengast AJ, Braun DA, Wolpert DM (2010), “Risk-sensitive optimal feedback control accounts for sensorimotor behavior under uncertainty.” PLoS Comput Biol 6(7):e1000857 Details

Teufel C, Kingdon A, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM, Fletcher PC (2010), “Deficits in sensory prediction are related to delusional ideation in healthy individuals.” Neuropsychologia 48(14):4169-72 Details

Wolpert DM, Flanagan JR (2010), “Motor learning.” Curr Biol 20(11):R467-72 Details

Wolpert DM, Flanagan JR (2010), “Q&A: Robotics as a tool to understand the brain.” BMC Biol 8:92 Details


Ahmed AA, Wolpert DM (2009), “Transfer of dynamic learning across postures.” J Neurophysiol 102(5):2816-24 Details

Braun DA, Aertsen A, Wolpert DM, Mehring C (2009), “Motor task variation induces structural learning.” Curr Biol 19(4):352-7 Details

Braun DA, Aertsen A, Wolpert DM, Mehring C (2009), “Learning optimal adaptation strategies in unpredictable motor tasks.” J Neurosci 29(20):6472-8 Details

Braun DA, Ortega PA, Wolpert DM (2009), “Nash equilibria in multi-agent motor interactions.” PLoS Comput Biol 5(8):e1000468 Details

Faisal AA, Wolpert DM (2009), “Near optimal combination of sensory and motor uncertainty in time during a naturalistic perception-action task.” J Neurophysiol 101(4):1901-12 Details

Howard IS, Ingram JN, Körding KP, Wolpert DM (2009), “Statistics of natural movements are reflected in motor errors.” J Neurophysiol 102(3):1902-10 Details

Howard IS, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2009), “A modular planar robotic manipulandum with end-point torque control.” J Neurosci Methods 181(2):199-211 Details

Nagengast AJ, Braun DA, Wolpert DM (2009), “Optimal control predicts human performance on objects with internal degrees of freedom.” PLoS Comput Biol 5(6):e1000419 Details

Resulaj A, Kiani R, Wolpert DM, Shadlen MN (2009), “Changes of mind in decision-making.” Nature 461(7261):263-6 Details

Selen LP, Franklin DW, Wolpert DM (2009), “Impedance control reduces instability that arises from motor noise.” J Neurosci 29(40):12606-16 Details


Ahmed AA, Wolpert DM, Flanagan JR (2008), “Flexible representations of dynamics are used in object manipulation.” Curr Biol 18(10):763-8 Details

Faisal AA, Selen LP, Wolpert DM (2008), “Noise in the nervous system.” Nat Rev Neurosci 9(4):292-303 Details

Franklin DW, Wolpert DM (2008), “Specificity of reflex adaptation for task-relevant variability.” J Neurosci 28(52):14165-75 Details

Howard IS, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2008), “Composition and decomposition in bimanual dynamic learning.” J Neurosci 28(42):10531-40 Details

Ingram JN, Körding KP, Howard IS, Wolpert DM (2008), “The statistics of natural hand movements.” Exp Brain Res 188(2):223-36 Details

Voss M, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM, Haggard P (2008), “Mere expectation to move causes attenuation of sensory signals.” PLoS One 3(8):e2866 Details


Bays PM, Wolpert DM (2007), “Computational principles of sensorimotor control that minimize uncertainty and variability.” J Physiol 578(Pt 2):387-96 Details

Braun DA, Wolpert DM (2007), “Optimal control: when redundancy matters.” Curr Biol 17(22):R973-5 Details

Hamilton AF, Joyce DW, Flanagan JR, Frith CD, Wolpert DM (2007), “Kinematic cues in perceptual weight judgement and their origins in box lifting.” Psychol Res 71(1):13-21 Details

Tcheang L, Bays PM, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2007), “Simultaneous bimanual dynamics are learned without interference.” Exp Brain Res 183(1):17-25 Details

Voss M, Bays PM, Rothwell JC, Wolpert DM (2007), “An improvement in perception of self-generated tactile stimuli following theta-burst stimulation of primary motor cortex.” Neuropsychologia 45(12):2712-7 Details

Witney AG, Wolpert DM (2007), “The effect of externally generated loading on predictive grip force modulation.” Neurosci Lett 414(1):10-5 Details

Wolpert DM (2007), “Probabilistic models in human sensorimotor control.” Hum Mov Sci 26(4):511-24 Details


Bays PM, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2006), “Attenuation of self-generated tactile sensations is predictive, not postdictive.” PLoS Biol 4(2):e28 Details

Bays PM, Wolpert DM (2006), “Actions and consequences in bimanual interaction are represented in different coordinate systems.” J Neurosci 26(26):7121-6 Details

Hamilton AF, Wolpert DM, Frith U, Grafton ST (2006), “Where does your own action influence your perception of another person's action in the brain?” Neuroimage 29(2):524-35 Details

Harris CM, Wolpert DM (2006), “The main sequence of saccades optimizes speed-accuracy trade-off.” Biol Cybern 95(1):21-9 Details

Körding KP, Wolpert DM (2006), “Bayesian decision theory in sensorimotor control.” Trends Cogn Sci 10(7):319-26 Details

Körding KP, Wolpert DM (2006), “Probabilistic mechanisms in sensorimotor control.” Novartis Found Symp 270:191-8; discussion 198-202, 232-7 Details

Voss M, Ingram JN, Haggard P, Wolpert DM (2006), “Sensorimotor attenuation by central motor command signals in the absence of movement.” Nat Neurosci 9(1):26-7 Details


Bays PM, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2005), “Interference between velocity-dependent and position-dependent force-fields indicates that tasks depending on different kinematic parameters compete for motor working memory.” Exp Brain Res 163(3):400-5 Details

Bays PM, Wolpert DM, Flanagan JR (2005), “Perception of the consequences of self-action is temporally tuned and event driven.” Curr Biol 15(12):1125-8 Details

Cattaneo L, Voss M, Brochier T, Prabhu G, Wolpert DM, Lemon RN (2005), “A cortico-cortical mechanism mediating object-driven grasp in humans.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(3):898-903 Details

Davidson PR, Wolpert DM (2005), “Widespread access to predictive models in the motor system: a short review.” J Neural Eng 2(3):S313-9 Details

Davidson PR, Wolpert DM, Scott SH, Flanagan JR (2005), “Common encoding of novel dynamic loads applied to the hand and arm.” J Neurosci 25(22):5425-9 Details

Haruno M, Wolpert DM (2005), “Optimal control of redundant muscles in step-tracking wrist movements.” J Neurophysiol 94(6):4244-55 Details

Kitazawa S, Wolpert DM (2005), “Rhythmicity, randomness and synchrony in climbing fiber signals.” Trends Neurosci 28(11):611-9 Details

Nowak DA, Voss M, Huang YZ, Wolpert DM, Rothwell JC (2005), “High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the hand area of the primary motor cortex disturbs predictive grip force scaling.” Eur J Neurosci 22(9):2392-6 Details

Rizzolatti G, Wolpert DM (2005), “Motor systems.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 15(6):623-5 Details

Schultz J, Friston KJ, O'Doherty J, Wolpert DM, Frith CD (2005), “Activation in posterior superior temporal sulcus parallels parameter inducing the percept of animacy.” Neuron 45(4):625-35 Details

Shergill SS, Samson G, Bays PM, Frith CD, Wolpert DM (2005), “Evidence for sensory prediction deficits in schizophrenia.” Am J Psychiatry 162(12):2384-6 Details


Baraduc P, Lang N, Rothwell JC, Wolpert DM (2004), “Consolidation of dynamic motor learning is not disrupted by rTMS of primary motor cortex.” Curr Biol 14(3):252-6 Details

Caithness G, Osu R, Bays P, Chase H, Klassen J, Kawato M, Wolpert DM, Flanagan JR (2004), “Failure to consolidate the consolidation theory of learning for sensorimotor adaptation tasks.” J Neurosci 24(40):8662-71 Details

Davidson PR, Wolpert DM (2004), “Scaling down motor memories: de-adaptation after motor learning.” Neurosci Lett 370(2-3):102-7 Details

Davidson PR, Wolpert DM (2004), “Internal models underlying grasp can be additively combined.” Exp Brain Res 155(3):334-40 Details

Hamilton AF, Jones KE, Wolpert DM (2004), “The scaling of motor noise with muscle strength and motor unit number in humans.” Exp Brain Res 157(4):417-30 Details

Körding KP, Fukunaga I, Howard IS, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2004), “A neuroeconomics approach to inferring utility functions in sensorimotor control.” PLoS Biol 2(10):e330 Details

Körding KP, Ku SP, Wolpert DM (2004), “Bayesian integration in force estimation.” J Neurophysiol 92(5):3161-5 Details

Körding KP, Wolpert DM (2004), “The loss function of sensorimotor learning.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(26):9839-42 Details

van Beers RJ, Haggard P, Wolpert DM (2004), “The role of execution noise in movement variability.” J Neurophysiol 91(2):1050-63 Details


Davidson PR, Wolpert DM (2003), “Motor learning and prediction in a variable environment.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 13(2):232-7 Details

Flanagan JR, Vetter P, Johansson RS, Wolpert DM (2003), “Prediction precedes control in motor learning.” Curr Biol 13(2):146-50 Details

Shergill SS, Bays PM, Frith CD, Wolpert DM (2003), “Two eyes for an eye: the neuroscience of force escalation.” Science 301(5630):187 Details

Witney AG, Wolpert DM (2003), “Spatial representation of predictive motor learning.” J Neurophysiol 89(4):1837-43 Details

Wolpert DM, Doya K, Kawato M (2003), “A unifying computational framework for motor control and social interaction.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358(1431):593-602 Details


Baraduc P, Wolpert DM (2002), “Adaptation to a visuomotor shift depends on the starting posture.” J Neurophysiol 88(2):973-81 Details

Blakemore SJ, Wolpert DM, Frith CD (2002), “Abnormalities in the awareness of action.” Trends Cogn Sci 6(6):237-242 Details

Hamilton AF, Wolpert DM (2002), “Controlling the statistics of action: obstacle avoidance.” J Neurophysiol 87(5):2434-40 Details

Jackson A, Spinks RL, Freeman TC, Wolpert DM, Lemon RN (2002), “Rhythm generation in monkey motor cortex explored using pyramidal tract stimulation.” J Physiol 541(Pt 3):685-99 Details

Jones KE, Hamilton AF, Wolpert DM (2002), “Sources of signal-dependent noise during isometric force production.” J Neurophysiol 88(3):1533-44 Details

Tong C, Wolpert DM, Flanagan JR (2002), “Kinematics and dynamics are not represented independently in motor working memory: evidence from an interference study.” J Neurosci 22(3):1108-13 Details

van Beers RJ, Baraduc P, Wolpert DM (2002), “Role of uncertainty in sensorimotor control.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 357(1424):1137-45 Details

van Beers RJ, Wolpert DM, Haggard P (2002), “When feeling is more important than seeing in sensorimotor adaptation.” Curr Biol 12(10):834-7 Details

Vetter P, Flash T, Wolpert DM (2002), “Planning movements in a simple redundant task.” Curr Biol 12(6):488-91 Details


Blakemore SJ, Frith CD, Wolpert DM (2001), “The cerebellum is involved in predicting the sensory consequences of action.” Neuroreport 12(9):1879-84 Details

Flanagan JR, King S, Wolpert DM, Johansson RS (2001), “Sensorimotor prediction and memory in object manipulation.” Can J Exp Psychol 55(2):87-95 Details

Haruno M, Wolpert DM, Kawato M (2001), “Mosaic model for sensorimotor learning and control.” Neural Comput 13(10):2201-20 Details

van Beers RJ, Wolpert DM, Haggard P (2001), “Sensorimotor integration compensates for visual localization errors during smooth pursuit eye movements.” J Neurophysiol 85(5):1914-22 Details

Witney AG, Vetter P, Wolpert DM (2001), “The influence of previous experience on predictive motor control.” Neuroreport 12(4):649-53 Details

Wolpert DM, Flanagan JR (2001), “Motor prediction.” Curr Biol 11(18):R729-32 Details

Wolpert DM, Ghahramani Z, Flanagan JR (2001), “Perspectives and problems in motor learning.” Trends Cogn Sci 5(11):487-494 Details


Frith CD, Blakemore S, Wolpert DM (2000), “Explaining the symptoms of schizophrenia: abnormalities in the awareness of action.” Brain Res Brain Res Rev 31(2-3):357-63 Details

Frith CD, Blakemore SJ, Wolpert DM (2000), “Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355(1404):1771-88 Details

Vetter P, Wolpert DM (2000), “The CNS updates its context estimate in the absence of feedback.” Neuroreport 11(17):3783-6 Details

Vetter P, Wolpert DM (2000), “Context estimation for sensorimotor control.” J Neurophysiol 84(2):1026-34 Details

Witney AG, Goodbody SJ, Wolpert DM (2000), “Learning and decay of prediction in object manipulation.” J Neurophysiol 84(1):334-43 Details

Wolpert DM, Ghahramani Z (2000), “Computational principles of movement neuroscience.” Nat Neurosci 3 Suppl:1212-7 Details


Baker SN, Philbin N, Spinks R, Pinches EM, Wolpert DM, MacManus DG, Pauluis Q, Lemon RN (1999), “Multiple single unit recording in the cortex of monkeys using independently moveable microelectrodes.” J Neurosci Methods 94(1):5-17 Details

Blakemore SJ, Frith CD, Wolpert DM (1999), “Spatio-temporal prediction modulates the perception of self-produced stimuli.” J Cogn Neurosci 11(5):551-9 Details

Blakemore SJ, Wolpert DM, Frith CD (1999), “The cerebellum contributes to somatosensory cortical activity during self-produced tactile stimulation.” Neuroimage 10(4):448-59 Details

Goodbody SJ, Wolpert DM (1999), “The effect of visuomotor displacements on arm movement paths.” Exp Brain Res 127(2):213-23 Details

Vetter P, Goodbody SJ, Wolpert DM (1999), “Evidence for an eye-centered spherical representation of the visuomotor map.” J Neurophysiol 81(2):935-9 Details

Witney AG, Goodbody SJ, Wolpert DM (1999), “Predictive motor learning of temporal delays.” J Neurophysiol 82(5):2039-48 Details


Blakemore SJ, Goodbody SJ, Wolpert DM (1998), “Predicting the consequences of our own actions: the role of sensorimotor context estimation.” J Neurosci 18(18):7511-8 Details

Blakemore SJ, Wolpert DM, Frith CD (1998), “Central cancellation of self-produced tickle sensation.” Nat Neurosci 1(7):635-40 Details

Goodbody SJ, Wolpert DM (1998), “Temporal and amplitude generalization in motor learning.” J Neurophysiol 79(4):1825-38 Details

Harris CM, Wolpert DM (1998), “Signal-dependent noise determines motor planning.” Nature 394(6695):780-4 Details

Sabes PN, Jordan MI, Wolpert DM (1998), “The role of inertial sensitivity in motor planning.” J Neurosci 18(15):5948-57 Details

Wolpert DM, Goodbody SJ, Husain M (1998), “Maintaining internal representations: the role of the human superior parietal lobe.” Nat Neurosci 1(6):529-33 Details

Wolpert DM, Kawato M (1998), “Multiple paired forward and inverse models for motor control.” Neural Netw 11(7-8):1317-29 Details

Wolpert DM, Miall RC, Kawato M (1998), “Internal models in the cerebellum.” Trends Cogn Sci 2(9):338-47 Details


Ghahramani Z, Wolpert DM (1997), “Modular decomposition in visuomotor learning.” Nature 386(6623):392-5 Details

Wolpert DM (1997), “Computational approaches to motor control.” Trends Cogn Sci 1(6):209-16 Details


Ghahramani Z, Wolpert DM, Jordan MI (1996), “Generalization to local remappings of the visuomotor coordinate transformation.” J Neurosci 16(21):7085-96 Details

Wolpert DM, Miall RC (1996), “Forward Models for Physiological Motor Control.” Neural Netw 9(8):1265-1279 Details


Wolpert DM, Ghahramani Z, Jordan MI (1995), “An internal model for sensorimotor integration.” Science 269(5232):1880-2 Details

Wolpert DM, Ghahramani Z, Jordan MI (1995), “Are arm trajectories planned in kinematic or dynamic coordinates? An adaptation study.” Exp Brain Res 103(3):460-70 Details


Wolpert DM, Ghahramani Z, Jordan MI (1994), “Perceptual distortion contributes to the curvature of human reaching movements.” Exp Brain Res 98(1):153-6 Details


Miall RC, Weir DJ, Wolpert DM, Stein JF (1993), “Is the cerebellum a smith predictor?” J Mot Behav 25(3):203-16 Details

Wolpert DM, Miall RC, Cumming B, Boniface SJ (1993), “Retinal adaptation of visual processing time delays.” Vision Res 33(10):1421-30 Details

Wolpert DM, Miall RC, Kerr GK, Stein JF (1993), “Ocular limit cycles induced by delayed retinal feedback.” Exp Brain Res 96(1):173-80 Details


Wolpert DM, Miall RC, Winter JL, Stein JF (1992), “Evidence for an error deadzone in compensatory tracking.” J Mot Behav 24(4):299-308 Details


Dye C, Wolpert DM (1988), “Earthquakes, influenza and cycles of Indian kala-azar.” Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82(6):843-50 Details