Dr Keri Carpenter

University position

Senior Research Associate


Department of Clinical Neurosciences


Neurosurgery Unit



Home page


Research Theme

Clinical and Veterinary Neuroscience


Research on human brain chemistry, in brain injury and brain tumour patients. Brain injury is a major cause of disability and death. While some brain injury survivors have good outcomes, others experience varying degrees of disability, which are often life-long, with consequent demands on carers and resources. After the initial event, a complex series of biochemical and biological changes occurs in the hours and days that follow. Brain chemistry is monitored in severely injured patients by means of inserting fine semi-permeable tubes into the brain, a technique called microdialysis. The fluid collected by microdialysis is analysed in various ways. This can reveal information on energy status, metabolism and inflammation in the injured brain. Microdialysis is used routinely to monitor brain injury patients being treated in the Neuro Critical Care Unit, and to support clinical trials investigating new drug treatments or surgical procedures.

Research Focus


brain injury



brain metabolism

Clinical conditions

Traumatic brain injury




Luminex analysis





Peter Hutchinson

Associated News Items



Helmy A, Guilfoyle MR, Carpenter KL, Pickard JD, Menon DK, Hutchinson PJ (2014), “Recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in severe traumatic brain injury: a phase II randomized control trial.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab Details

Jalloh I, Helmy A, Shannon RJ, Gallagher CN, Menon DK, Carpenter KL, Hutchinson PJ (2014), “Response to Letter Lactate Uptake Against a Concentration Gradient: Misinterpretation of Analytical Imprecision.” J Neurotrauma Details

Shannon RJ, Timofeev I, Nortje J, Hutchinson PJ, Carpenter KL (2014), “Monitoring vigabatrin in head injury patients by cerebral microdialysis: obtaining pharmacokinetic measurements in a neuro-critical care setting.” Br J Clin Pharmacol Details


Carpenter KL, Jalloh I, Gallagher CN, Grice P, Howe DJ, Mason A, Timofeev I, Helmy A, Murphy MP, Menon DK, Kirkpatrick PJ, Carpenter TA, Sutherland GR, Pickard JD, Hutchinson PJ (2013), “13C-labelled microdialysis studies of cerebral metabolism in TBI patients.” Eur J Pharm Sci Details

Jalloh I, Helmy A, Shannon RJ, Gallagher CN, Menon DK, Carpenter KL, Hutchinson PJ (2013), “Lactate uptake by the injured human brain: evidence from an arteriovenous gradient and cerebral microdialysis study.” J Neurotrauma 30(24):2031-7 Details

Shannon RJ, Carpenter KL, Guilfoyle MR, Helmy A, Hutchinson PJ (2013), “Cerebral microdialysis in clinical studies of drugs: pharmacokinetic applications.” J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 40(3):343-58 Details


Carpenter KL, Timofeev I, Nortje J, Czosnyka M, Pickard JD, Hutchinson PJ (2012), “A microdialysis study of oral vigabatrin administration in head injury patients: preliminary evaluation of multimodality monitoring.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 114:271-6 Details

Helmy A, Antoniades CA, Guilfoyle MR, Carpenter KL, Hutchinson PJ (2012), “Principal component analysis of the cytokine and chemokine response to human traumatic brain injury.” PLoS One 7(6):e39677 Details


Helmy A, Carpenter KL, Menon DK, Pickard JD, Hutchinson PJ (2011), “The cytokine response to human traumatic brain injury: temporal profiles and evidence for cerebral parenchymal production.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 31(2):658-70 Details

Helmy A, De Simoni MG, Guilfoyle MR, Carpenter KL, Hutchinson PJ (2011), “Cytokines and innate inflammation in the pathogenesis of human traumatic brain injury.” Prog Neurobiol 95(3):352-72 Details

Timofeev I, Carpenter KL, Nortje J, Al-Rawi PG, O'Connell MT, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Menon DK, Kirkpatrick PJ, Gupta AK, Hutchinson PJ (2011), “Cerebral extracellular chemistry and outcome following traumatic brain injury: a microdialysis study of 223 patients.” Brain 134(Pt 2):484-94 Details

Timofeev I, Czosnyka M, Carpenter KL, Nortje J, Kirkpatrick PJ, Al-Rawi PG, Menon DK, Pickard JD, Gupta AK, Hutchinson PJ (2011), “Interaction between brain chemistry and physiology after traumatic brain injury: impact of autoregulation and microdialysis catheter location.” J Neurotrauma 28(6):849-60 Details


Marcus HJ, Carpenter KL, Price SJ, Hutchinson PJ (2010), “In vivo assessment of high-grade glioma biochemistry using microdialysis: a study of energy-related molecules, growth factors and cytokines.” J Neurooncol 97(1):11-23 Details


Gallagher CN, Carpenter KL, Grice P, Howe DJ, Mason A, Timofeev I, Menon DK, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD, Sutherland GR, Hutchinson PJ (2009), “The human brain utilizes lactate via the tricarboxylic acid cycle: a 13C-labelled microdialysis and high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance study.” Brain 132(Pt 10):2839-49 Details

Helmy A, Carpenter KL, Skepper JN, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD, Hutchinson PJ (2009), “Microdialysis of cytokines: methodological considerations, scanning electron microscopy, and determination of relative recovery.” J Neurotrauma 26(4):549-61 Details

Hutchinson PJ, O'Connell MT, Seal A, Nortje J, Timofeev I, Al-Rawi PG, Coles JP, Fryer TD, Menon DK, Pickard JD, Carpenter KL (2009), “A combined microdialysis and FDG-PET study of glucose metabolism in head injury.” Acta Neurochir (Wien) 151(1):51-61; discussion 61 Details


Carpenter KL, Timofeev I, Al-Rawi PG, Menon DK, Pickard JD, Hutchinson PJ (2008), “Nitric oxide in acute brain injury: a pilot study of NO(x) concentrations in human brain microdialysates and their relationship with energy metabolism.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 102:207-13 Details


Helmy A, Carpenter KL, Hutchinson PJ (2007), “Microdialysis in the human brain and its potential role in the development and clinical assessment of drugs.” Curr Med Chem 14(14):1525-37 Details

Hutchinson PJ, O'Connell MT, Rothwell NJ, Hopkins SJ, Nortje J, Carpenter KL, Timofeev I, Al-Rawi PG, Menon DK, Pickard JD (2007), “Inflammation in human brain injury: intracerebral concentrations of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and their endogenous inhibitor IL-1ra.” J Neurotrauma 24(10):1545-57 Details


Carpenter KL (2006), “Beta-carotene: a colorful killer of cancer cells? A commentary on "ROS-triggered caspase 2 activation and feedback amplification loop in beta-carotene-induced apoptosis".” Free Radic Biol Med 41(3):418-21 Details


Davies JD, Carpenter KL, Challis IR, Figg NL, McNair R, Proudfoot D, Weissberg PL, Shanahan CM (2005), “Adipocytic differentiation and liver x receptor pathways regulate the accumulation of triacylglycerols in human vascular smooth muscle cells.” J Biol Chem 280(5):3911-9 Details


Muralidhar B, Carpenter KL, Müller K, Skepper JN, Arends MJ (2004), “Potency of arachidonic acid in polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced death of human monocyte-macrophages: implications for atherosclerosis.” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 71(4):251-62 Details


Carpenter KL, Challis IR, Arends MJ (2003), “Mildly oxidised LDL induces more macrophage death than moderately oxidised LDL: roles of peroxidation, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and PPARgamma.” FEBS Lett 553(1-2):145-50 Details

Carpenter KL, Kirkpatrick PJ, Weissberg PL, Challis IR, Dennis IF, Freeman MA, Mitchinson MJ (2003), “Oral alpha-tocopherol supplementation inhibits lipid oxidation in established human atherosclerotic lesions.” Free Radic Res 37(11):1235-44 Details


Carpenter KL (2002), “Good COP, bad COP: an unsolved murder. Are dietary cholesterol oxidation products guilty of atherogenicity?” Br J Nutr 88(4):335-8 Details

Müller K, Carpenter KL, Challis IR, Skepper JN, Arends MJ (2002), “Carotenoids induce apoptosis in the T-lymphoblast cell line Jurkat E6.1.” Free Radic Res 36(7):791-802 Details


Carpenter KL, Dennis IF, Challis IR, Osborn DP, Macphee CH, Leake DS, Arends MJ, Mitchinson MJ (2001), “Inhibition of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 diminishes the death-inducing effects of oxidised LDL on human monocyte-macrophages.” FEBS Lett 505(3):357-63 Details

Garcia-Cruset S, Carpenter KL, Guardiola F, Stein BK, Mitchinson MJ (2001), “Oxysterol profiles of normal human arteries, fatty streaks and advanced lesions.” Free Radic Res 35(1):31-41 Details

Shanahan CM, Carpenter KL, Cary NR (2001), “A potential role for sterol 27-hydroxylase in atherogenesis.” Atherosclerosis 154(2):269-76 Details


Carpenter KL, Hardwick SJ, Albarani V, Mitchinson MJ (1999), “Carotenoids inhibit DNA synthesis in human aortic smooth muscle cells.” FEBS Lett 447(1):17-20 Details

Garcia-Cruset S, Carpenter KL, Guardiola F, Mitchinson MJ (1999), “Oxysterols in cap and core of human advanced atherosclerotic lesions.” Free Radic Res 30(5):341-50 Details

Hardwick SJ, Carpenter KL, Allen EA, Mitchinson MJ (1999), “Glutathione (GSH) and the toxicity of oxidised low-density lipoprotein to human monocyte-macrophages.” Free Radic Res 30(1):11-9 Details

Müller K, Carpenter KL, Freeman MA, Mitchinson MJ (1999), “Antioxidant BO-653 and human macrophage-mediated LDL oxidation.” Free Radic Res 30(1):59-71 Details


Müller K, Carpenter KL, Mitchinson MJ (1998), “Cell-mediated oxidation of LDL: comparison of different cell types of the atherosclerotic lesion.” Free Radic Res 29(3):207-20 Details


Carpenter KL, van der Veen C, Hird R, Dennis IF, Ding T, Mitchinson MJ (1997), “The carotenoids beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin inhibit macrophage-mediated LDL oxidation.” FEBS Lett 401(2-3):262-6 Details

Hardwick SJ, Carpenter KL, Law NS, Van Der Veen C, Marchant CE, Hird R, Mitchinson MJ (1997), “Toxicity of polyunsaturated fatty acid esters for human monocyte-macrophages: the anomalous behaviour of cholesteryl linolenate.” Free Radic Res 26(4):351-62 Details

van der Veen C, Carpenter KL, Taylor SE, McDonald JA, Mitchinson MJ (1997), “Factors affecting events during oxidation of low density lipoprotein: correlation of multiple parameters of oxidation.” Free Radic Res 27(5):459-76 Details


Hardwick SJ, Hegyi L, Clare K, Law NS, Carpenter KL, Mitchinson MJ, Skepper JN (1996), “Apoptosis in human monocyte-macrophages exposed to oxidized low density lipoprotein.” J Pathol 179(3):294-302 Details

Marchant CE, Van der Veen C, Law NS, Hardwick SJ, Carpenter KL, Mitchinson MJ (1996), “Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein by human monocyte-macrophages results in toxicity to the oxidising culture.” Free Radic Res 24(5):333-42 Details

Müller K, Hardwick SJ, Marchant CE, Law NS, Waeg G, Esterbauer H, Carpenter KL, Mitchinson MJ (1996), “Cytotoxic and chemotactic potencies of several aldehydic components of oxidised low density lipoprotein for human monocyte-macrophages.” FEBS Lett 388(2-3):165-8 Details


Carpenter KL, Cheeseman KH, van der Veen C, Taylor SE, Walker MK, Mitchinson MJ (1995), “Depletion of alpha-tocopherol in human atherosclerotic lesions.” Free Radic Res 23(6):549-58 Details

Carpenter KL, Taylor SE, van der Veen C, Williamson BK, Ballantine JA, Mitchinson MJ (1995), “Lipids and oxidised lipids in human atherosclerotic lesions at different stages of development.” Biochim Biophys Acta 1256(2):141-50 Details

Carpenter KL, van der Veen C, Taylor SE, Hardwick SJ, Clare K, Hegyi L, Mitchinson MJ (1995), “Macrophages, lipid oxidation, ceroid accumulation and alpha-tocopherol depletion in human atherosclerotic lesions.” Gerontology 41 Suppl 2:53-67 Details

Clare K, Hardwick SJ, Carpenter KL, Weeratunge N, Mitchinson MJ (1995), “Toxicity of oxysterols to human monocyte-macrophages.” Atherosclerosis 118(1):67-75 Details

Marchant CE, Law NS, van der Veen C, Hardwick SJ, Carpenter KL, Mitchinson MJ (1995), “Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is cytotoxic to human monocyte-macrophages: protection with lipophilic antioxidants.” FEBS Lett 358(2):175-8 Details

Stein JM, Proudfoot D, Carpenter KL, Bowyer DE (1995), “A novel cell growth inhibitor produced by macrophages.” Biochem Soc Trans 23(4):591S Details


Carpenter KL, Wilkins GM, Fussell B, Ballantine JA, Taylor SE, Mitchinson MJ, Leake DS (1994), “Production of oxidized lipids during modification of low-density lipoprotein by macrophages or copper.” Biochem J 304 ( Pt 2):625-33 Details


Carpenter KL, Taylor SE, Ballantine JA, Fussell B, Halliwell B, Mitchinson MJ (1993), “Lipids and oxidised lipids in human atheroma and normal aorta.” Biochim Biophys Acta 1167(2):121-30 Details

Hunt JV, Carpenter KL, Bottoms MA, Carter NP, Marchant CE, Mitchinson MJ (1993), “Flow cytometric measurement of ceroid accumulation in macrophages.” Atherosclerosis 98(2):229-39 Details


Carpenter KL, Brabbs CE, Mitchinson MJ (1991), “Oxygen radicals and atherosclerosis.” Klin Wochenschr 69(21-23):1039-45 Details


Ardeshna KM, Ball RY, Carpenter KL, Enright JH, Mitchinson MJ (1990), “Ceroid accumulation by murine peritoneal macrophages exposed to artificial lipid-containing particles: the role of the hydrophilic component.” Int J Exp Pathol 71(6):799-808 Details

Carpenter KL, Ballantine JA, Fussell B, Enright JH, Mitchinson MJ (1990), “Oxidation of cholesteryl linoleate by human monocyte-macrophages in vitro.” Atherosclerosis 83(2-3):217-29 Details

Mitchinson MJ, Ball RY, Carpenter KL, Enright JH (1990), “Macrophages and ceroid in human atherosclerosis.” Eur Heart J 11 Suppl E:116-21 Details


Carpenter KL, Ball RY, Carter NP, Woods SE, Hartley SL, Davies S, Enright JH, Mitchinson MJ (1989), “Modulation of ceroid accumulation in macrophages in vitro.” Adv Exp Med Biol 266:333-43 Details


Ball RY, Carpenter KL, Mitchinson MJ (1988), “Ceroid accumulation by murine peritoneal macrophages exposed to artificial lipoproteins: ultrastructural observations.” Br J Exp Pathol 69(1):43-56 Details


Ball RY, Carpenter KL, Mitchinson MJ (1987), “What is the significance of ceroid in human atherosclerosis?” Arch Pathol Lab Med 111(12):1134-40 Details