Dr Karalyn Patterson FRS, FMedSci, FBA

Karalyn Patterson

University position

Visiting Academic


Department of Clinical Neurosciences


Neurology Unit



Home page

http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/people/... (personal home page)

Research Theme

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience


I study language and memory in adults, mainly from the perspective of the patterns of disruption to these cognitive functions that occur as a result of brain damage or disease.

Research Focus





temporal lobes

Clinical conditions

Alzheimer's disease




Cerebrovascular disorders

Cognitive impairment



Language disorders



Behavioural analysis

Computational modelling

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Neuropsychological testing



James Rowe

United Kingdom

Matthew Lambon Ralph Web: http://www.psych-sci.manchester.ac.uk/staff/M...

Richard Wise Web: http://richard.wise@crc.mrc.ac.uk


James McClelland Web: http://www-psych.stanford.edu/faculty...

Associated News Items

Key publications

Patterson K, Fushimi T (2006), “Organisation of language in the brain: Does it matter which language you speak? Interdisciplinary Science Reviews” 31: 201-216

Patterson K, Lambon Ralph MA, Jefferies E, Woollams A, Jones R, Hodges JR, Rogers TT (2006), “‘Pre-semantic’ cognition in semantic dementia: Six deficits in search of an explanation” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18:169-183 Details

Kellenbach ML, Hovius M, Patterson K (2005), “A PET study of visual and semantic knowledge about objects” Cortex 41:107-118 Details

Hodges JR, Patterson K, Oxbury S, Funnell E (1992), “Semantic dementia. Progressive fluent aphasia with temporal lobe atrophy.” Brain 115 ( Pt 6):1783-806 Details

Patterson K, Hodges JR (1992), “Deterioration of word meaning: implications for reading.” Neuropsychologia 30(12):1025-40 Details

Patterson K, Vargha-Khadem F, Polkey CE (1989), “Reading with one hemisphere.” Brain 112 ( Pt 1):39-63 Details



Bishop DV, Nation K, Patterson K (2014), “Preface. Language in developmental and acquired disorders.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 369(1634):20130564 Details

Bishop DV, Nation K, Patterson K (2014), “When words fail us: insights into language processing from developmental and acquired disorders.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 369(1634):20120403 Details

Patterson K, Holland R (2014), “Patients with impaired verb-tense processing: do they know that yesterday is past?” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 369(1634):20120402 Details


Adlam AL, de Haan M, Hodges JR, Patterson K (2013), “Memory for action sequences in semantic dementia.” Neuropsychologia 51(8):1481-7 Details

Meteyard L, Quain E, Patterson K (2013), “Ever decreasing circles: Speech production in semantic dementia.” Cortex Details

Sajjadi SA, Acosta-Cabronero J, Patterson K, Diaz-de-Grenu LZ, Williams GB, Nestor PJ (2013), “Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging for single subject diagnosis in neurodegenerative diseases.” Brain 136(Pt 7):2253-61 Details

Whitelock CF, Agyepong HN, Patterson K, Ersche KD (2013), “Signing below the dotted line: signature position as a marker of vulnerability for visuospatial processing difficulties.” Neurocase Details


Butler R, Patterson K, Woollams AM (2012), “In search of meaning: semantic effects on past-tense inflection.” Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 65(8):1633-56 Details

Hoffman P, Meteyard L, Patterson K (2012), “Broadly speaking: Vocabulary in semantic dementia shifts towards general, semantically diverse words.” Cortex Details

Holland R, Brindley L, Shtyrov Y, Pulvermüller F, Patterson K (2012), “They played with the trade: MEG investigation of the processing of past tense verbs and their phonological twins.” Neuropsychologia 50(14):3713-20 Details

Sajjadi SA, Patterson K, Arnold RJ, Watson PC, Nestor PJ (2012), “Primary progressive aphasia: a tale of two syndromes and the rest.” Neurology 78(21):1670-7 Details

Woollams AM, Patterson K (2012), “The consequences of progressive phonological impairment for reading aloud.” Neuropsychologia 50(14):3469-77 Details


Acosta-Cabronero J, Patterson K, Fryer TD, Hodges JR, Pengas G, Williams GB, Nestor PJ (2011), “Atrophy, hypometabolism and white matter abnormalities in semantic dementia tell a coherent story.” Brain 134(Pt 7):2025-35 Details

Lambon Ralph MA, Patterson K, Plaut DC (2011), “Finite case series or infinite single-case studies? Comments on "Case series investigations in cognitive neuropsychology" by Schwartz and Dell (2010).” Cogn Neuropsychol 28(7):466-74; discussion 515-20 Details


Adlam AL, Patterson K, Bozeat S, Hodges JR (2010), “The Cambridge Semantic Memory Test Battery: detection of semantic deficits in semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease.” Neurocase 16(3):193-207 Details

Mion M, Patterson K, Acosta-Cabronero J, Pengas G, Izquierdo-Garcia D, Hong YT, Fryer TD, Williams GB, Hodges JR, Nestor PJ (2010), “What the left and right anterior fusiform gyri tell us about semantic memory.” Brain 133(11):3256-68 Details

Pengas G, Patterson K, Arnold RJ, Bird CM, Burgess N, Nestor PJ (2010), “Lost and found: bespoke memory testing for Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia.” J Alzheimers Dis 21(4):1347-65 Details

Pulvermüller F, Cooper-Pye E, Dine C, Hauk O, Nestor PJ, Patterson K (2010), “The word processing deficit in semantic dementia: all categories are equal, but some categories are more equal than others.” J Cogn Neurosci 22(9):2027-41 Details


Adlam AL, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2009), “"I remember it as if it were yesterday": memory for recent events in patients with semantic dementia.” Neuropsychologia 47(5):1344-51 Details

Dewar BK, Patterson K, Wilson BA, Graham KS (2009), “Re-acquisition of person knowledge in semantic memory disorders.” Neuropsychol Rehabil 19(3):383-421 Details

Green HA, Patterson K (2009), “Jigsaws-a preserved ability in semantic dementia.” Neuropsychologia 47(2):569-76 Details

Meteyard L, Patterson K (2009), “The relation between content and structure in language production: an analysis of speech errors in semantic dementia.” Brain Lang 110(3):121-34 Details


Hodges JR, Martinos M, Woollams AM, Patterson K, Adlam AL (2008), “Repeat and Point: differentiating semantic dementia from progressive non-fluent aphasia.” Cortex 44(9):1265-70 Details

Kipps CM, Knibb JA, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2008), “Neuropsychology of frontotemporal dementia.” Handb Clin Neurol 88:527-48 Details

Woollams AM, Cooper-Pye E, Hodges JR, Patterson K (2008), “Anomia: a doubly typical signature of semantic dementia.” Neuropsychologia 46(10):2503-14 Details


Alladi S, Xuereb J, Bak T, Nestor P, Knibb J, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2007), “Focal cortical presentations of Alzheimer's disease.” Brain 130(Pt 10):2636-45 Details

Hauk O, Patterson K, Woollams A, Cooper-Pye E, Pulvermüller F, Rogers TT (2007), “How the camel lost its hump: the impact of object typicality on event-related potential signals in object decision.” J Cogn Neurosci 19(8):1338-53 Details

Patterson K (2007), “The reign of typicality in semantic memory.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 362(1481):813-21 Details

Patterson K, Nestor PJ, Rogers TT (2007), “Where do you know what you know? The representation of semantic knowledge in the human brain.” Nat Rev Neurosci 8(12):976-87 Details

Woollams AM, Ralph MA, Plaut DC, Patterson K (2007), “SD-squared: on the association between semantic dementia and surface dyslexia.” Psychol Rev 114(2):316-39 Details


Adlam AL, Patterson K, Rogers TT, Nestor PJ, Salmond CH, Acosta-Cabronero J, Hodges JR (2006), “Semantic dementia and fluent primary progressive aphasia: two sides of the same coin?” Brain 129(Pt 11):3066-80 Details

Cumming TB, Graham KS, Patterson K (2006), “Repetition priming and hyperpriming in semantic dementia.” Brain Lang 98(2):221-34 Details

Cumming TB, Patterson K, Verfaellie M, Graham KS (2006), “One bird with two stones: Abnormal word length effects in pure alexia and semantic dementia.” Cogn Neuropsychol 23(8):1130-61 Details

Hauk O, Patterson K, Woollams A, Watling L, Pulvermüller F, Rogers TT (2006), “[Q:] When would you prefer a SOSSAGE to a SAUSAGE? [A:] At about 100 msec. ERP correlates of orthographic typicality and lexicality in written word recognition.” J Cogn Neurosci 18(5):818-32 Details

Hodges JR, Erzinçlio?lu S, Patterson K (2006), “Evolution of cognitive deficits and conversion to dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a very-long-term follow-up study.” Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 21(5-6):380-91 Details

Knibb JA, Xuereb JH, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2006), “Clinical and pathological characterization of progressive aphasia.” Ann Neurol 59(1):156-65 Details

Rogers TT, Hocking J, Noppeney U, Mechelli A, Gorno-Tempini ML, Patterson K, Price CJ (2006), “Anterior temporal cortex and semantic memory: reconciling findings from neuropsychology and functional imaging.” Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 6(3):201-13 Details

Rogers TT, Ivanoiu A, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2006), “Semantic memory in Alzheimer's disease and the frontotemporal dementias: a longitudinal study of 236 patients.” Neuropsychology 20(3):319-35 Details


Davies RR, Hodges JR, Kril JJ, Patterson K, Halliday GM, Xuereb JH (2005), “The pathological basis of semantic dementia.” Brain 128(Pt 9):1984-95 Details

Rogers TT, Hocking J, Mechelli A, Patterson K, Price C (2005), “Fusiform activation to animals is driven by the process, not the stimulus.” J Cogn Neurosci 17(3):434-45 Details


Graham NL, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2004), “When more yields less: speaking and writing deficits in nonfluent progressive aphasia.” Neurocase 10(2):141-55 Details

Rogers TT, Lambon Ralph MA, Garrard P, Bozeat S, McClelland JL, Hodges JR, Patterson K (2004), “Structure and deterioration of semantic memory: a neuropsychological and computational investigation.” Psychol Rev 111(1):205-35 Details

Rogers TT, Ralph MA, Hodges JR, Patterson K (2004), “Natural selection: the impact of semantic impairment on lexical and object decision.” Cogn Neuropsychol 21(2):331-52 Details

Thompson SA, Graham KS, Williams G, Patterson K, Kapur N, Hodges JR (2004), “Dissociating person-specific from general semantic knowledge: roles of the left and right temporal lobes.” Neuropsychologia 42(3):359-70 Details


Bozeat S, Ralph MA, Graham KS, Patterson K, Wilkin H, Rowland J, Rogers TT, Hodges JR (2003), “A duck with four legs: Investigating the structure of conceptual knowledge using picture drawing in semantic dementia.” Cogn Neuropsychol 20(1):27-47 Details

Graham KS, Lee AC, Brett M, Patterson K (2003), “The neural basis of autobiographical and semantic memory: new evidence from three PET studies.” Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 3(3):234-54 Details

Graham NL, Bak T, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2003), “Language function and dysfunction in corticobasal degeneration.” Neurology 61(4):493-9 Details

Hovius M, Kellenbach ML, Graham KS, Hodges JR, Patterson K (2003), “What does the object decision task measure? Reflections on the basis of evidence from semantic dementia.” Neuropsychology 17(1):100-7 Details

Kellenbach ML, Brett M, Patterson K (2003), “Actions speak louder than functions: the importance of manipulability and action in tool representation.” J Cogn Neurosci 15(1):30-46 Details

Lambon Ralph MA, Patterson K, Graham N, Dawson K, Hodges JR (2003), “Homogeneity and heterogeneity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 55 cases.” Brain 126(Pt 11):2350-62 Details

Nestor PJ, Graham NL, Fryer TD, Williams GB, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2003), “Progressive non-fluent aphasia is associated with hypometabolism centred on the left anterior insula.” Brain 126(Pt 11):2406-18 Details

Thompson SA, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2003), “Left/right asymmetry of atrophy in semantic dementia: behavioral-cognitive implications.” Neurology 61(9):1196-203 Details


Bozeat S, Lambon Ralph MA, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2002), “When objects lose their meaning: what happens to their use?” Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2(3):236-51 Details

Bozeat S, Ralph MA, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2002), “The influence of personal familiarity and context on object use in semantic dementia.” Neurocase 8(1-2):127-34 Details

Graham KS, Patterson K, Powis J, Drake J, Hodges JR (2002), “Multiple inputs to episodic memory: words tell another story.” Neuropsychology 16(3):380-9 Details

Lee AC, Graham KS, Simons JS, Hodges JR, Owen AM, Patterson K (2002), “Regional brain activations differ for semantic features but not categories.” Neuroreport 13(12):1497-501 Details

Strain E, Patterson K, Seidenberg MS (2002), “Theories of word naming interact with spelling-sound consistency.” J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 28(1):207-14; discussion 215-20 Details

Thompson SA, Graham KS, Patterson K, Sahakian BJ, Hodges JR (2002), “Is knowledge of famous people disproportionately impaired in patients with early and questionable Alzheimer's disease?” Neuropsychology 16(3):344-58 Details


Caine D, Patterson K, Hodges JR, Heard R, Halliday G (2001), “Severe anterograde amnesia with extensive hippocampal degeneration in a case of rapidly progressive frontotemporal dementia.” Neurocase 7(1):57-64 Details

Galton CJ, Gomez-Anson B, Antoun N, Scheltens P, Patterson K, Graves M, Sahakian BJ, Hodges JR (2001), “Temporal lobe rating scale: application to Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 70(2):165-73 Details

Galton CJ, Patterson K, Graham K, Lambon-Ralph MA, Williams G, Antoun N, Sahakian BJ, Hodges JR (2001), “Differing patterns of temporal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia.” Neurology 57(2):216-25 Details

Garrard P, Ralph MA, Hodges JR, Patterson K (2001), “Prototypicality, distinctiveness, and intercorrelation: Analyses of the semantic attributes of living and nonliving concepts.” Cogn Neuropsychol 18(2):125-74 Details

Graham NL, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2001), “The emergence of jargon in progressive fluent dysgraphia: The widening gap between target and response.” Cogn Neuropsychol 18(4):343-61 Details

Kellenbach ML, Brett M, Patterson K (2001), “Large, colorful, or noisy? Attribute- and modality-specific activations during retrieval of perceptual attribute knowledge.” Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 1(3):207-21 Details

Patterson K, Lambon Ralph MA, Hodges JR, McClelland JL (2001), “Deficits in irregular past-tense verb morphology associated with degraded semantic knowledge.” Neuropsychologia 39(7):709-24 Details

Simons JS, Graham KS, Galton CJ, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2001), “Semantic knowledge and episodic memory for faces in semantic dementia.” Neuropsychology 15(1):101-14 Details

Simons JS, Graham KS, Owen AM, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2001), “Perceptual and semantic components of memory for objects and faces: a pet study.” J Cogn Neurosci 13(4):430-43 Details


Bird H, Lambon Ralph MA, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2000), “The rise and fall of frequency and imageability: noun and verb production in semantic dementia.” Brain Lang 73(1):17-49 Details

Bozeat S, Lambon Ralph MA, Patterson K, Garrard P, Hodges JR (2000), “Non-verbal semantic impairment in semantic dementia.” Neuropsychologia 38(9):1207-15 Details

Croot K, Hodges JR, Xuereb J, Patterson K (2000), “Phonological and articulatory impairment in Alzheimer's disease: a case series.” Brain Lang 75(2):277-309 Details

Galton CJ, Patterson K, Xuereb JH, Hodges JR (2000), “Atypical and typical presentations of Alzheimer's disease: a clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging and pathological study of 13 cases.” Brain 123 Pt 3:484-98 Details

Graham KS, Simons JS, Pratt KH, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2000), “Insights from semantic dementia on the relationship between episodic and semantic memory.” Neuropsychologia 38(3):313-24 Details

Graham NL, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2000), “The impact of semantic memory impairment on spelling: evidence from semantic dementia.” Neuropsychologia 38(2):143-63 Details

Hodges JR, Bozeat S, Lambon Ralph MA, Patterson K, Spatt J (2000), “The role of conceptual knowledge in object use evidence from semantic dementia.” Brain 123 ( Pt 9):1913-25 Details

Knott R, Patterson K, Hodges JR (2000), “The role of speech production in auditory-verbal short-term memory: evidence from progressive fluent aphasia.” Neuropsychologia 38(2):125-42 Details


Croot K, Hodges JR, Patterson K (1999), “Evidence for impaired sentence comprehension in early Alzheimer's disease.” J Int Neuropsychol Soc 5(5):393-404 Details

Graham KS, Patterson K, Hodges JR (1999), “Episodic memory: new insights from the study of semantic dementia.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 9(2):245-50 Details

Graham KS, Patterson K, Pratt KH, Hodges JR (1999), “Relearning and subsequent forgetting of semantic category exemplars in a case of semantic dementia.” Neuropsychology 13(3):359-80 Details

Graham NL, Zeman A, Young AW, Patterson K, Hodges JR (1999), “Dyspraxia in a patient with corticobasal degeneration: the role of visual and tactile inputs to action.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 67(3):334-44 Details

Hodges JR, Patterson K, Ward R, Garrard P, Bak T, Perry R, Gregory C (1999), “The differentiation of semantic dementia and frontal lobe dementia (temporal and frontal variants of frontotemporal dementia) from early Alzheimer's disease: a comparative neuropsychological study.” Neuropsychology 13(1):31-40 Details

Hodges JR, Spatt J, Patterson K (1999), “"What" and "how": evidence for the dissociation of object knowledge and mechanical problem-solving skills in the human brain.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(16):9444-8 Details

Lambon Ralph MA, Graham KS, Patterson K, Hodges JR (1999), “Is a picture worth a thousand words? Evidence from concept definitions by patients with semantic dementia.” Brain Lang 70(3):309-35 Details

Patterson K, Ralph MA (1999), “Selective disorders of reading?” Curr Opin Neurobiol 9(2):235-9 Details

Wilson BA, Balleny H, Patterson K, Hodges JR (1999), “Myotonic dystrophy and progressive cognitive decline: a common condition or two separate problems?” Cortex 35(1):113-21 Details


Croot K, Patterson K, Hodges JR (1998), “Single word production in nonfluent progressive aphasia.” Brain Lang 61(2):226-73 Details

Garrard P, Patterson K, Watson PC, Hodges JR (1998), “Category specific semantic loss in dementia of Alzheimer's type. Functional-anatomical correlations from cross-sectional analyses.” Brain 121 ( Pt 4):633-46 Details

Strain E, Patterson K, Graham N, Hodges JR (1998), “Word reading in Alzheimer's disease: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of response time and accuracy data.” Neuropsychologia 36(2):155-71 Details


Hodges JR, Patterson K (1997), “Semantic memory disorders.” Trends Cogn Sci 1(2):68-72 Details

Patterson K, Behrmann M (1997), “Frequency and consistency effects in a pure surface dyslexic patient.” J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 23(4):1217-31 Details


Greene JD, Patterson K, Xuereb J, Hodges JR (1996), “Alzheimer disease and nonfluent progressive aphasia.” Arch Neurol 53(10):1072-8 Details

Hodges JR, Patterson K (1996), “Nonfluent progressive aphasia and semantic dementia: a comparative neuropsychological study.” J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2(6):511-24 Details

Hodges JR, Patterson K, Graham N, Dawson K (1996), “Naming and knowing in dementia of Alzheimer's type.” Brain Lang 54(2):302-25 Details

Ross SJ, Graham N, Stuart-Green L, Prins M, Xuereb J, Patterson K, Hodges JR (1996), “Progressive biparietal atrophy: an atypical presentation of Alzheimer's disease.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 61(4):388-95 Details


Hodges JR, Graham N, Patterson K (1995), “Charting the progression in semantic dementia: implications for the organisation of semantic memory.” Memory 3(3-4):463-95 Details

Hodges JR, Patterson K (1995), “Is semantic memory consistently impaired early in the course of Alzheimer's disease? Neuroanatomical and diagnostic implications.” Neuropsychologia 33(4):441-59 Details

Strain E, Patterson K, Seidenberg MS (1995), “Semantic effects in single-word naming.” J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 21(5):1140-54 Details


Graham KS, Hodges JR, Patterson K (1994), “The relationship between comprehension and oral reading in progressive fluent aphasia.” Neuropsychologia 32(3):299-316 Details

Patterson K, Graham N, Hodges JR (1994), “The impact of semantic memory loss on phonological representations.” J Cogn Neurosci 6(1):57-69 Details