Dr James Ingram

University position

Senior Research Associate


Department of Engineering



Home page


Research Theme

Systems and Computational Neuroscience


My research focuses on understanding the sensorimotor control of the arm and hand in humans. I am especially interested in object manipulation and tool use. Object manipulation and tool use is an essential feature of human behaviour. It represents a challenge for sensorimotor control because each time an object is grasped, the dynamics of the arm changes. In order to move skillfully after grasping an object, the motor commands to the arm and hand must adapt to the particular dynamics of the grasped object. My research uses virtual reality systems to simulate tasks in which subjects grasp and manipulate virtual objects. The simulation includes computer controlled visual feedback and robotic interfaces which simulate the forces and torques associated with manipulation of the object. Results from experiments elucidate the sensorimotor processes that mediate object manipulation and allow computational models of those processes to be developed.

Research Focus


Sensorimotor Control

Motor Learning

Object Manipulation

Tool Use

Clinical conditions

No direct clinical relevance


Behavioural analysis

Computational modelling

Motion tracking

Neuropsychological testing

Robotic interfaces

Simulated haptic feedback

Virtual reality


No collaborators listed

Associated News Items

Key publications

Ingram JN, Sadeghi M, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2017), “An error-tuned model for sensorimotor learning” PLoS Comput Biol 13(12): e1005883

Ingram JN, Howard IS, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2010), “Multiple grasp-specific representations of tool dynamics mediate skillful manipulation.” Curr Biol 20(7):618-23 Details

Ingram JN, Körding KP, Howard IS, Wolpert DM (2008), “The statistics of natural hand movements.” Exp Brain Res 188(2):223-36 Details



Wolpe N, Ingram JN, Tsvetanov K, Geerligs L, Kievit R, Henson R, Wolpert DM, Cam-CAN, Rowe J (2016), “Ageing increases reliance on sensorimotor prediction through structural and functional differences in frontostriatal circuits” Nature Communications 7: 13034


Carroll TJ, de Rugy A, Howard IS, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2015), “Enhanced cross-limb transfer of force field learning for dynamics that are identical in extrinsic and joint-based coordinates for both limbs” Journal of Neurophysiology 115: 445-456


Burk D, Ingram JN, Franklin DW, Shadlen MN & Wolpert DM (2014), “Motor effort alters changes of mind in sensorimotor decision making” PLoS Onw e92681


Ingram JN, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2013), “Context-dependent decay of motor memories during skill acquisition.” Curr Biol 23(12):1107-12 Details


Howard IS, Ingram JN, Franklin DW, Wolpert DM (2012), “Gone in 0.6 seconds: the encoding of motor memories depends on recent sensorimotor states.” J Neurosci 32(37):12756-68 Details

Ingram JN (2012), “The sensorimotor control of object manipulation and tool use” PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge


Howard IS, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2011), “Separate representations of dynamics in rhythmic and discrete movements: evidence from motor learning.” J Neurophysiol 105(4):1722-31 Details

Ingram JN, Howard IS, Flanagan JR, Wolpert DM (2011), “A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.” PLoS Comput Biol 7(9):e1002196 Details

Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2011), “Naturalistic approaches to sensorimotor control.” Prog Brain Res 191:3-29 Details


Howard IS, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2010), “Context-dependent partitioning of motor learning in bimanual movements.” J Neurophysiol 104(4):2082-91 Details

Teufel C, Kingdon A, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM, Fletcher PC (2010), “Deficits in sensory prediction are related to delusional ideation in healthy individuals.” Neuropsychologia 48(14):4169-72 Details


Howard IS, Ingram JN, Körding KP, Wolpert DM (2009), “Statistics of natural movements are reflected in motor errors.” J Neurophysiol 102(3):1902-10 Details

Howard IS, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2009), “A modular planar robotic manipulandum with end-point torque control.” J Neurosci Methods 181(2):199-211 Details


Howard IS, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2008), “Composition and decomposition in bimanual dynamic learning.” J Neurosci 28(42):10531-40 Details

Voss M, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM, Haggard P (2008), “Mere expectation to move causes attenuation of sensory signals.” PLoS One 3(8):e2866 Details


Tcheang L, Bays PM, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2007), “Simultaneous bimanual dynamics are learned without interference.” Exp Brain Res 183(1):17-25 Details


Voss M, Ingram JN, Haggard P, Wolpert DM (2006), “Sensorimotor attenuation by central motor command signals in the absence of movement.” Nat Neurosci 9(1):26-7 Details


Körding KP, Fukunaga I, Howard IS, Ingram JN, Wolpert DM (2004), “A neuroeconomics approach to inferring utility functions in sensorimotor control.” PLoS Biol 2(10):e330 Details


Ingram JN, Renfree MB, Shaw G (2001), “Differential regulation of contractility and nitric oxide sensitivity in gravid and nongravid myometrium during late pregnancy in a marsupial.” Endocrinology 142(6):2244-51 Details


Ingram JN, Shaw G, Renfree MB (1999), “Cortisol in fetal fluids and the fetal adrenal at parturition in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).” Biol Reprod 60(3):651-5 Details