Professor William Harris

University position

Professor Emeritus

Professor William Harris is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.


Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience


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Research Themes

Developmental Neuroscience

Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


Where does the nervous system come from in the embryo? How does it grow to the right size and shape? How do stem cells turn into more committed neuronal progenitors and how do these cells know when to leave the cycle and differentiate into neural and glial progenitors? Once born, how do these precursors differentiate? How do they choose a particular cell type to become amongst a myriad of possible fates, and by what cellular mechanisms do these cells become properly polarised, branched, and integrated into the retinal circuitry? What mechanisms allow retinal ganglion cells to send out long axons that forge pathways to their targets in the brain, and recognise specific cells within these targets? These were the main questions that my laboratory investigated using the visual systems of Xenopus and zebrafish because of their embryological, molecular and genetic accessibility to experimentation, combined with the possibility of in vivo time-lapse imaging.

Par3:GFP fusion protein detaching with apical process in differentiating retinal cells
Par3:GFP fusion protein detaching with apical process in differentiating retinal cells
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Research Focus



visual system


cell determination

neural circuit

Clinical conditions

Birth defects


Genetic disorders

visual impairments


Cell culture

Confocal microscopy



Recombinant protein expression



Christine Holt


Monica Vetter Web:

Associated News Items

Key publications

Harris WA (in press), “Zero to Birth: How the Human Brain is Made” Princeton University Press

Azizi A, Herrmann A, Wan Y, Buse SJ, Keller PJ, Goldstein RE, Harris WA (2020), “Nuclear crowding and nonlinear diffusion during interkinetic nuclear migration in the zebrafish retina” Elife 9:e58635

Charlton-Perkins M, Almeida AD, MacDonald RB, Harris WA (2019), “Genetic control of cellular morphogenesis in Müller glia” Glia 67(7):1401-1411

Eldred MK, Charlton-Perkins M, Muresan L, Harris WA (2017), “Self-organising aggregates of zebrafish retinal cells for investigating mechanisms of neural lamination” Development 144(6):1097-1106

Wan Y, Almeida AD, Rulands S, Chalour N, Muresan L, Wu Y, Simons BD, He J, Harris WA (2016), “The ciliary marginal zone of the zebrafish retina: clonal and time-lapse analysis of a continuously growing tissue” Development 143:1099-107

Boije H, Rulands S, Dudczig S, Simons BD, Harris WA. (2015), “The Independent Probabilistic Firing of Transcription Factors: A Paradigm for Clonal Variability in the Zebrafish Retina.” Dev. Cell 34(5):532-43.

MacDonald RB, Randlett O, Oswald J, Yoshimatsu T, Franze K, Harris WA. (2015), “Müller glia provide essential tensile strength to the developing retina.” J Cell Biol. 210(7):1075-83. 210(7):1075-83.

Almeida AD, Boije H, Chow RW, He J, Tham J, Suzuki SC, Harris WA (2014), “Spectrum of Fates: a new approach to the study of the developing zebrafish retina.” Development 141(9):1971-80 Details

Love NK, Keshavan N, Lewis R, Harris WA, Agathocleous M (2014), “A nutrient-sensitive restriction point is active during retinal progenitor cell differentiation.” Development 141(3):697-706 Details

Randlett O, MacDonald RB, Yoshimatsu T, Almeida AD, Suzuki SC, Wong RO, Harris WA (2013), “Cellular requirements for building a retinal neuropil.” Cell Rep 3(2):282-90 Details

Agathocleous M, Love NK, Randlett O, Harris JJ, Liu J, Murray AJ, Harris WA (2012), “Metabolic differentiation in the embryonic retina.” Nat Cell Biol 14(8):859-64 Details

He J, Zhang G, Almeida AD, Cayouette M, Simons BD, Harris WA (2012), “How variable clones build an invariant retina.” Neuron 75(5):786-98 Details

Jusuf PR, Albadri S, Paolini A, Currie PD, Argenton F, Higashijima S, Harris WA, Poggi L (2012), “Biasing amacrine subtypes in the Atoh7 lineage through expression of Barhl2.” J Neurosci 32(40):13929-44 Details

Sanes DH, Reh TA, Harris WA (2012), “Development of the Nervous System (3rd ed)” Book

Leung L, Klopper AV, Grill SW, Harris WA, Norden C (2011), “Apical migration of nuclei during G2 is a prerequisite for all nuclear motion in zebrafish neuroepithelia.” Development 138(22):5003-13 Details

Randlett O, Poggi L, Zolessi FR, Harris WA (2011), “The oriented emergence of axons from retinal ganglion cells is directed by laminin contact in vivo.” Neuron 70(2):266-80 Details

Agathocleous M, Harris WA (2009), “From progenitors to differentiated cells in the vertebrate retina.” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 25:45-69 Details

Norden C, Young S, Link BA, Harris WA (2009), “Actomyosin is the main driver of interkinetic nuclear migration in the retina.” Cell 138(6):1195-208 Details



Cioni JM, Lin JQ, Holtermann AV, Koppers M, Jakobs MAH, Azizi A, Turner-Bridger B, Shigeoka T, Franze K, Harris WA, Holt CE (2019), “Late Endosomes Act as mRNA Translation Platforms and Sustain Mitochondria in Axons” Cell 176(1-2):56-72

Eldred MK, Muresan L, Harris WA (2019), “Disaggregation and Reaggregation of Zebrafish Retinal Cells for the Analysis of Neuronal Layering” Methods Mol Biol. 1576:255-271 1576:255-271

Koppers M, Cagnetta R, Shigeoka T, Wunderlich LC, Vallejo-Ramirez P, Qiaojin Lin J, Zhao S, Jakobs MA, Dwivedy A, Minett MS, Bellon A, Kaminski CF, Harris WA, Flanagan JG, Holt CE (2019), “Receptor-specific interactome as a hub for rapid cue-induced selective translation in axons” Elife 8:e48718

Shigeoka T, Koppers M, Wong HH, Lin JQ, Cagnetta R, Dwivedy A, de Freitas Nascimento J, van Tartwijk FW, Ströhl F, Cioni JM, Schaeffer J, Carrington M, Kaminski CF, Jung H, Harris WA, Holt CE (2019), “On-Site Ribosome Remodeling by Locally Synthesized Ribosomal Proteins in Axons” Cell Rep 29(11):3605-3619


Cioni JM, Wong HH, Bressan D, Kodama L, Harris WA, Holt CE (2018), “Axon-Axon Interactions Regulate Topographic Optic Tract Sorting via CYFIP2-Dependent WAVE Complex Function” Neuron 97(5):1078-1093

Turner-Bridger B, Jakobs M, Muresan L, Wong HH, Franze K, Harris WA, Holt CE (2018), “Single-molecule analysis of endogenous ?-actin mRNA trafficking reveals a mechanism for compartmentalized mRNA localization in axons” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115(41):E9697-E9706


Goodings L, He J, Wood AJ, Harris WA, Currie PD, Jusuf PR (2017), “In vivo expression of Nurr1/Nr4a2a in developing retinal amacrine subtypes in zebrafish Tg(nr4a2a:eGFP) transgenics” J. Comp. Neural. 525(8):1962-1979

MacDonald RB, Charlton-Perkins M, Harris WA (2017), “Mechanisms of Müller glial cell morphogenesis” Curr Opin Neurobiol 47:31-37

MacDonald RB, Kashikar ND, Lagnado L, Harris WA (2017), “A Novel Tool to Measure Extracellular Glutamate in the Zebrafish Nervous System In Vivo” Zebrafish 14(3):284-286

Wong HH, Lin JQ, Ströhl F, Roque CG, Cioni JM, Cagnetta R, Turner-Bridger B, Laine RF, Harris WA, Kaminski CF, Holt CE (2017), “RNA Docking and Local Translation Regulate Site-Specific Axon Remodeling In Vivo” Neuron 95(4):852-868


Hörnberg H, Cioni JM, Harris WA, Holt CE (2016), “Hermes Regulates Axon Sorting in the Optic Tract by Post-Trancriptional Regulation of Neuropilin 1” J Neurosci. 36(50):12697-12706

Khaliullina H, Love NK, Harris WA (2016), “Nutrient-Deprived Retinal Progenitors Proliferate in Response to Hypoxia: Interaction of the HIF-1 and mTOR Pathway” J Dev Biol. 4(2):17


Bertacchi M, Lupo G, Pandolfini L, Casarosa S, D'Onofrio M, Pedersen RA, Harris WA, Cremisi F. (2015), “Activin/Nodal Signaling Supports Retinal Progenitor Specification in a Narrow Time Window during Pluripotent Stem Cell Neuralization.” Stem Cell Reports. 5(4):532-45.

Bertacchi M, Lupo G, Pandolfini L, Casarosa S, D'Onofrio M, Pedersen RA, Harris WA, Cremisi F. (2015), “Activin/Nodal Signaling Supports Retinal Progenitor Specification in a Narrow Time Window during Pluripotent Stem Cell Neuralization” Stem Cell Reports 5:532-45

Chow RW, Almeida AD, Randlett O, Norden C, Harris WA. (2015), “Inhibitory neuron migration and IPL formation in the developing zebrafish retina.” Development 142(15):2665-77.

Leung LC, Harris WA, Holt CE, Piper M. (2015), “NF-Protocadherin Regulates Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Behaviour in the Developing Visual System” PLoS One 10(10):e0141290

Piper M, Lee AC, van Horck FP, McNeilly H, Lu TB, Harris WA, Holt CE. (2015), “Differential requirement of F-actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in cue-induced local protein synthesis in axonal growth cones.” Neural Dev. 10:3

Wang X, Lupo G, He R, Barsacchi G, Harris WA, Liu Y. (2015), “Dorsoventral patterning of the Xenopus eye involves differential temporal changes in the response of optic stalk and retinal progenitors to Hh signalling.” Neural Dev. 10:7.


Boije H, Macdonald RB, Harris WA (2014), “Reconciling competence and transcriptional hierarchies with stochasticity in retinal lineages.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 27C:68-74 Details

Centanin L, Ander JJ, Hoeckendorf B, Lust K, Kellner T, Kraemer I, Urbany C, Hasel E, Harris WA, Simons BD, Wittbrodt J. (2014), “Exclusive multipotency and preferential asymmetric divisions in post-embryonic neural stem cells of the fish retina.” Development 141(18):3472-82.


Agathocleous M, Harris WA (2013), “Metabolism in physiological cell proliferation and differentiation.” Trends Cell Biol 23(10):484-92 Details

Cayouette M, Mattar P, Harris WA (2013), “Progenitor competence: genes switching places.” Cell 152(1-2):13-4 Details

Hörnberg H, Wollerton-van Horck F, Maurus D, Zwart M, Svoboda H, Harris WA, Holt CE (2013), “RNA-binding protein Hermes/RBPMS inversely affects synapse density and axon arbor formation in retinal ganglion cells in vivo.” J Neurosci 33(25):10384-95 Details

Jusuf P, Harris WA, Poggi L (2013), “Imaging retinal progenitor lineages in developing zebrafish embryos.” Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2013(3) Details

Jusuf P, Harris WA, Poggi L (2013), “Preparation of transgenic zebrafish embryos for imaging the developing retina.” Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2013(3) Details

Leung LC, Urban?i? V, Baudet ML, Dwivedy A, Bayley TG, Lee AC, Harris WA, Holt CE (2013), “Coupling of NF-protocadherin signaling to axon guidance by cue-induced translation.” Nat Neurosci 16(2):166-73 Details

Lupo G, Novorol C, Smith JR, Vallier L, Miranda E, Alexander M, Biagioni S, Pedersen RA, Harris WA (2013), “Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/?-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures.” Open Biol 3(4):120167 Details

Novorol C, Burkhardt J, Wood KJ, Iqbal A, Roque C, Coutts N, Almeida AD, He J, Wilkinson CJ, Harris WA (2013), “Microcephaly models in the developing zebrafish retinal neuroepithelium point to an underlying defect in metaphase progression.” Open Biol 3(10):130065 Details


Harris WA (2012), “Yoshiki and KS222.” J Neurogenet 26(1):5-6 Details

Kechad A, Jolicoeur C, Tufford A, Mattar P, Chow RW, Harris WA, Cayouette M (2012), “Numb is required for the production of terminal asymmetric cell divisions in the developing mouse retina.” J Neurosci 32(48):17197-210 Details

Wong GK, Baudet ML, Norden C, Leung L, Harris WA (2012), “Slit1b-Robo3 signaling and N-cadherin regulate apical process retraction in developing retinal ganglion cells.” J Neurosci 32(1):223-8 Details


Gomes FL, Zhang G, Carbonell F, Correa JA, Harris WA, Simons BD, Cayouette M (2011), “Reconstruction of rat retinal progenitor cell lineages in vitro reveals a surprising degree of stochasticity in cell fate decisions.” Development 138(2):227-35 Details

Jusuf PR, Almeida AD, Randlett O, Joubin K, Poggi L, Harris WA (2011), “Origin and determination of inhibitory cell lineages in the vertebrate retina.” J Neurosci 31(7):2549-62 Details

Jusuf PR, Almeida AD, Randlett O, Joubin K, Poggi L, Harris WA. (2011), “Origin and determination of inhibitory cell lineages in the vertebrate retina.” J Neurosci. 2011 Feb 16;31(7):2549-62.

Lupo G, Gestri G, O'Brien M, Denton RM, Chandraratna RA, Ley SV, Harris WA, Wilson SW (2011), “Retinoic acid receptor signaling regulates choroid fissure closure through independent mechanisms in the ventral optic cup and periocular mesenchyme.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(21):8698-703 Details

Randlett O, Norden C, Harris WA (2011), “The vertebrate retina: a model for neuronal polarization in vivo.” Dev Neurobiol 71(6):567-83 Details

Xue XY, Harris WA (2011), “Using myc genes to search for stem cells in the ciliary margin of the Xenopus retina.” Dev Neurobiol Details


Randlett O, Norden C, Harris WA (2010), “The vertebrate retina: A model for neuronal polarization in vivo.” Dev Neurobiol

Randlett O, Norden C, Harris WA. (2010), “The vertebrate retina: A model for neuronal polarization in vivo.” Dev Neurobiol. 2010 Dec 7. [Epub ahead of print]


Agathocleous M, Iordanova I, Willardsen MI, Xue XY, Vetter ML, Harris WA, Moore KB (2009), “A directional Wnt/beta-catenin-Sox2-proneural pathway regulates the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the Xenopus retina.” Development 136(19):3289-99 Details

Jusuf PR, Harris WA (2009), “Ptf1a is expressed transiently in all types of amacrine cells in the embryonic zebrafish retina.” Neural Dev 4:34 Details

Maurus D, Harris WA (2009), “Zic-associated holoprosencephaly: zebrafish Zic1 controls midline formation and forebrain patterning by regulating Nodal, Hedgehog, and retinoic acid signaling.” Genes Dev 23(12):1461-73 Details

Seipold S, Priller FC, Goldsmith P, Harris WA, Baier H, Abdelilah-Seyfried S (2009), “Non-SMC condensin I complex proteins control chromosome segregation and survival of proliferating cells in the zebrafish neural retina.” BMC Dev Biol 9:40 Details

Vitorino M, Jusuf PR, Maurus D, Kimura Y, Higashijima S, Harris WA (2009), “Vsx2 in the zebrafish retina: restricted lineages through derepression.” Neural Dev 4:14 Details

Wilkinson CJ, Carl M, Harris WA (2009), “Cep70 and Cep131 contribute to ciliogenesis in zebrafish embryos.” BMC Cell Biol 10:17 Details


Smith JR, Vallier L, Lupo G, Alexander M, Harris WA, Pedersen RA (2008), “Inhibition of Activin/Nodal signaling promotes specification of human embryonic stem cells into neuroectoderm.” Dev Biol 313(1):107-17 Details


Agathocleous M, Locker M, Harris WA, Perron M (2007), “A general role of hedgehog in the regulation of proliferation.” Cell Cycle 6(2):156-9 Details


Cayouette M, Poggi L, Harris WA (2006), “Lineage in the vertebrate retina.” Trends Neurosci 29(10):563-70 Details

Kuriyama S, Lupo G, Ohta K, Ohnuma S, Harris WA, Tanaka H (2006), “Tsukushi controls ectodermal patterning and neural crest specification in Xenopus by direct regulation of BMP4 and X-delta-1 activity.” Development 133(1):75-88 Details

Locker M, Agathocleous M, Amato MA, Parain K, Harris WA, Perron M (2006), “Hedgehog signaling and the retina: insights into the mechanisms controlling the proliferative properties of neural precursors.” Genes Dev 20(21):3036-48 Details

Lupo G, Harris WA, Lewis KE (2006), “Mechanisms of ventral patterning in the vertebrate nervous system.” Nat Rev Neurosci 7(2):103-14 Details

Skoglund P, Dzamba B, Coffman CR, Harris WA, Keller R (2006), “Xenopus fibrillin is expressed in the organizer and is the earliest component of matrix at the developing notochord-somite boundary.” Dev Dyn 235(7):1974-83 Details

Viczian AS, Bang AG, Harris WA, Zuber ME (2006), “Expression of Xenopus laevis Lhx2 during eye development and evidence for divergent expression among vertebrates.” Dev Dyn 235(4):1133-41 Details

Zolessi FR, Poggi L, Wilkinson CJ, Chien CB, Harris WA (2006), “Polarization and orientation of retinal ganglion cells in vivo.” Neural Dev 1:2 Details


Brunet I, Weinl C, Piper M, Trembleau A, Volovitch M, Harris W, Prochiantz A, Holt C (2005), “The transcription factor Engrailed-2 guides retinal axons.” Nature 438(7064):94-8 Details

Harris WA (2005), “Two of these or two of those?” Neuron 48(4):521-2 Details

Lupo G, Liu Y, Qiu R, Chandraratna RA, Barsacchi G, He RQ, Harris WA (2005), “Dorsoventral patterning of the Xenopus eye: a collaboration of Retinoid, Hedgehog and FGF receptor signaling.” Development 132(7):1737-48 Details

Piper M, Salih S, Weinl C, Holt CE, Harris WA (2005), “Endocytosis-dependent desensitization and protein synthesis-dependent resensitization in retinal growth cone adaptation.” Nat Neurosci 8(2):179-86 Details

Poggi L, Vitorino M, Masai I, Harris WA (2005), “Influences on neural lineage and mode of division in the zebrafish retina in vivo.” J Cell Biol 171(6):991-9 Details

Poggi L, Zolessi FR, Harris WA (2005), “Time-lapse analysis of retinal differentiation.” Curr Opin Cell Biol 17(6):676-81 Details

Van Raay TJ, Moore KB, Iordanova I, Steele M, Jamrich M, Harris WA, Vetter ML (2005), “Frizzled 5 signaling governs the neural potential of progenitors in the developing Xenopus retina.” Neuron 46(1):23-36 Details

Wang JC, Harris WA (2005), “The role of combinational coding by homeodomain and bHLH transcription factors in retinal cell fate specification.” Dev Biol 285(1):101-15 Details


Darrow KO, Harris WA (2004), “Characterization and development of courtship in zebrafish, Danio rerio.” Zebrafish 1(1):40-5 Details

Mann F, Harris WA, Holt CE (2004), “New views on retinal axon development: a navigation guide.” Int J Dev Biol 48(8-9):957-64 Details

Ohta K, Lupo G, Kuriyama S, Keynes R, Holt CE, Harris WA, Tanaka H, Ohnuma S (2004), “Tsukushi functions as an organizer inducer by inhibition of BMP activity in cooperation with chordin.” Dev Cell 7(3):347-58 Details


Das T, Payer B, Cayouette M, Harris WA (2003), “In vivo time-lapse imaging of cell divisions during neurogenesis in the developing zebrafish retina.” Neuron 37(4):597-609 Details

Goldsmith P, Baier H, Harris WA (2003), “Two zebrafish mutants, ebony and ivory, uncover benefits of neighborhood on photoreceptor survival.” J Neurobiol 57(3):235-45 Details

Goldsmith P, Harris WA (2003), “The zebrafish as a tool for understanding the biology of visual disorders.” Semin Cell Dev Biol 14(1):11-8 Details

Harris WA (2003), “Specifying motor neurons: up and down and back to front.” Nat Neurosci 6(12):1247-9 Details

Harris WA (2003), “Developmental biology: clocking the birth of neurons.” Nature 425(6958):568-9 Details

Ohnuma S, Harris WA (2003), “Neurogenesis and the cell cycle.” Neuron 40(2):199-208 Details

Perron M, Boy S, Amato MA, Viczian A, Koebernick K, Pieler T, Harris WA (2003), “A novel function for Hedgehog signalling in retinal pigment epithelium differentiation.” Development 130(8):1565-77 Details

Steven C, Lehnen N, Kight K, Ijiri S, Klenke U, Harris WA, Zohar Y (2003), “Molecular characterization of the GnRH system in zebrafish (Danio rerio): cloning of chicken GnRH-II, adult brain expression patterns and pituitary content of salmon GnRH and chicken GnRH-II.” Gen Comp Endocrinol 133(1):27-37 Details

Viczian AS, Vignali R, Zuber ME, Barsacchi G, Harris WA (2003), “XOtx5b and XOtx2 regulate photoreceptor and bipolar fates in the Xenopus retina.” Development 130(7):1281-94 Details

Zuber ME, Gestri G, Viczian AS, Barsacchi G, Harris WA (2003), “Specification of the vertebrate eye by a network of eye field transcription factors.” Development 130(21):5155-67 Details


Lupo G, Harris WA, Barsacchi G, Vignali R (2002), “Induction and patterning of the telencephalon in Xenopus laevis.” Development 129(23):5421-36 Details

Ohnuma S, Hopper S, Wang KC, Philpott A, Harris WA (2002), “Co-ordinating retinal histogenesis: early cell cycle exit enhances early cell fate determination in the Xenopus retina.” Development 129(10):2435-46 Details

Ohnuma S, Mann F, Boy S, Perron M, Harris WA (2002), “Lipofection strategy for the study of Xenopus retinal development.” Methods 28(4):411-9 Details


Campbell DS, Regan AG, Lopez JS, Tannahill D, Harris WA, Holt CE (2001), “Semaphorin 3A elicits stage-dependent collapse, turning, and branching in Xenopus retinal growth cones.” J Neurosci 21(21):8538-47 Details

Harris WA (2001), “Temporal coordinates: the genes that fix cell fate with birth order.” Dev Cell 1(3):313-4 Details

Ohnuma S, Philpott A, Harris WA (2001), “Cell cycle and cell fate in the nervous system.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 11(1):66-73 Details

Rapaport DH, Patheal SL, Harris WA (2001), “Cellular competence plays a role in photoreceptor differentiation in the developing Xenopus retina.” J Neurobiol 49(2):129-41 Details


Dingwell KS, Holt CE, Harris WA (2000), “The multiple decisions made by growth cones of RGCs as they navigate from the retina to the tectum in Xenopus embryos.” J Neurobiol 44(2):246-59 Details

Johnson KG, Harris WA (2000), “Connecting the eye with the brain: the formation of the retinotectal pathway.” Results Probl Cell Differ 31:157-77 Details

Nakagawa S, Brennan C, Johnson KG, Shewan D, Harris WA, Holt CE (2000), “Ephrin-B regulates the Ipsilateral routing of retinal axons at the optic chiasm.” Neuron 25(3):599-610 Details

Perron M, Harris WA (2000), “Determination of vertebrate retinal progenitor cell fate by the Notch pathway and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors.” Cell Mol Life Sci 57(2):215-23 Details

Perron M, Harris WA (2000), “Retinal stem cells in vertebrates.” Bioessays 22(8):685-8 Details


Harris WA, Holt CE (1999), “Neurobiology. Slit, the midline repellent.” Nature 398(6727):462-3 Details

Nakagawa S, Harris WA (1999), “The metamorphosis antidote.” Neuron 24(4):763-4 Details

Neuhauss SC, Biehlmaier O, Seeliger MW, Das T, Kohler K, Harris WA, Baier H (1999), “Genetic disorders of vision revealed by a behavioral screen of 400 essential loci in zebrafish.” J Neurosci 19(19):8603-15 Details

Ohnuma S, Philpott A, Wang K, Holt CE, Harris WA (1999), “p27Xic1, a Cdk inhibitor, promotes the determination of glial cells in Xenopus retina.” Cell 99(5):499-510 Details

Perron M, Opdecamp K, Butler K, Harris WA, Bellefroid EJ (1999), “X-ngnr-1 and Xath3 promote ectopic expression of sensory neuron markers in the neurula ectoderm and have distinct inducing properties in the retina.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(26):14996-5001 Details

Ruchhoeft ML, Ohnuma S, McNeill L, Holt CE, Harris WA (1999), “The neuronal architecture of Xenopus retinal ganglion cells is sculpted by rho-family GTPases in vivo.” J Neurosci 19(19):8454-63 Details

Zuber ME, Perron M, Philpott A, Bang A, Harris WA (1999), “Giant eyes in Xenopus laevis by overexpression of XOptx2.” Cell 98(3):341-52 Details


Chang WS, Harris WA (1998), “Sequential genesis and determination of cone and rod photoreceptors in Xenopus.” J Neurobiol 35(3):227-44 Details

Dawson EB, Ritter S, Harris WA, Evans DR, Powell LC (1998), “Comparison of sperm viability with seminal plasma metal levels.” Biol Trace Elem Res 64(1-3):215-9 Details

Harris WA, Perron M (1998), “Molecular recapitulation: the growth of the vertebrate retina.” Int J Dev Biol 42(3):299-304 Details

Holt CE, Harris WA (1998), “Target selection: invasion, mapping and cell choice.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 8(1):98-105 Details

Marcus EA, Kintner C, Harris W (1998), “The role of GSK3beta in regulating neuronal differentiation in Xenopus laevis.” Mol Cell Neurosci 12(4-5):269-80 Details

Olson EC, Schinder AF, Dantzker JL, Marcus EA, Spitzer NC, Harris WA (1998), “Properties of ectopic neurons induced by Xenopus neurogenin1 misexpression.” Mol Cell Neurosci 12(4-5):281-99 Details

Perron M, Kanekar S, Vetter ML, Harris WA (1998), “The genetic sequence of retinal development in the ciliary margin of the Xenopus eye.” Dev Biol 199(2):185-200 Details

Zhang LI, Tao HW, Holt CE, Harris WA, Poo M (1998), “A critical window for cooperation and competition among developing retinotectal synapses.” Nature 395(6697):37-44 Details


Dorsky RI, Chang WS, Rapaport DH, Harris WA (1997), “Regulation of neuronal diversity in the Xenopus retina by Delta signalling.” Nature 385(6611):67-70 Details

Harris WA (1997), “Cellular diversification in the vertebrate retina.” Curr Opin Genet Dev 7(5):651-8 Details

Harris WA (1997), “Pax-6: where to be conserved is not conservative.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(6):2098-100 Details

Hirsch N, Harris WA (1997), “Xenopus Brn-3.0, a POU-domain gene expressed in the developing retina and tectum. Not regulated by innervation.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 38(5):960-9 Details

Hirsch N, Harris WA (1997), “Xenopus Pax-6 and retinal development.” J Neurobiol 32(1):45-61 Details

Kanekar S, Perron M, Dorsky R, Harris WA, Jan LY, Jan YN, Vetter ML (1997), “Xath5 participates in a network of bHLH genes in the developing Xenopus retina.” Neuron 19(5):981-94 Details

Ruchhoeft ML, Harris WA (1997), “Myosin functions in Xenopus retinal ganglion cell growth cone motility in vivo.” J Neurobiol 32(6):567-78 Details


Chien CB, Harris WA (1996), “Signal transduction in vertebrate growth cones navigating in vivo.” Perspect Dev Neurobiol 4(2-3):253-66 Details

Rétaux S, Harris WA (1996), “Engrailed and retinotectal topography.” Trends Neurosci 19(12):542-6 Details

Rétaux S, McNeill L, Harris WA (1996), “Engrailed, retinotectal targeting, and axonal patterning in the midbrain during Xenopus development: an antisense study.” Neuron 16(1):63-75 Details


Dorsky RI, Rapaport DH, Harris WA (1995), “Xotch inhibits cell differentiation in the Xenopus retina.” Neuron 14(3):487-96 Details

Eagleson G, Ferreiro B, Harris WA (1995), “Fate of the anterior neural ridge and the morphogenesis of the Xenopus forebrain.” J Neurobiol 28(2):146-58 Details

Harris WA, Holt CE (1995), “From tags to RAGS: chemoaffinity finally has receptors and ligands.” Neuron 15(2):241-4 Details

Tannahill D, Bray S, Harris WA (1995), “A Drosophila E(sp?) gene is "neurogenic" in Xenopus: a green fluorescent protein study.” Dev Biol 168(2):694-7 Details


Chien CB, Harris WA (1994), “Axonal guidance from retina to tectum in embryonic Xenopus.” Curr Top Dev Biol 29:135-69 Details

Ferreiro B, Harris WA (1994), “Neurogenesis in Xenopus: a molecular genetic perspective.” Adv Genet 31:29-78 Details

Ferreiro B, Kintner C, Zimmerman K, Anderson D, Harris WA (1994), “XASH genes promote neurogenesis in Xenopus embryos.” Development 120(12):3649-55 Details


Chien CB, Rosenthal DE, Harris WA, Holt CE (1993), “Navigational errors made by growth cones without filopodia in the embryonic Xenopus brain.” Neuron 11(2):237-51 Details

Coffman CR, Skoglund P, Harris WA, Kintner CR (1993), “Expression of an extracellular deletion of Xotch diverts cell fate in Xenopus embryos.” Cell 73(4):659-71 Details

Ferreiro B, Skoglund P, Bailey A, Dorsky R, Harris WA (1993), “XASH1, a Xenopus homolog of achaete-scute: a proneural gene in anterior regions of the vertebrate CNS.” Mech Dev 40(1-2):25-36 Details

Harris WA (1993), “Lineage versus environment in the embryonic retina.” Trends Neurosci 16(3):96; author reply 98 Details

Holt CE, Harris WA (1993), “Position, guidance, and mapping in the developing visual system.” J Neurobiol 24(10):1400-22 Details


Harris WA, Messersmith SL (1992), “Two cellular inductions involved in photoreceptor determination in the Xenopus retina.” Neuron 9(2):357-72 Details


Bixby JL, Harris WA (1991), “Molecular mechanisms of axon growth and guidance.” Annu Rev Cell Biol 7:117-59 Details

Harris WA (1991), “Many cell types specified by Notch function.” Curr Biol 1(2):120-2 Details

Harris WA, Hartenstein V (1991), “Neuronal determination without cell division in Xenopus embryos.” Neuron 6(4):499-515 Details

Ranganathan R, Harris WA, Zuker CS (1991), “The molecular genetics of invertebrate phototransduction.” Trends Neurosci 14(11):486-93 Details


Coffman C, Harris W, Kintner C (1990), “Xotch, the Xenopus homolog of Drosophila notch.” Science 249(4975):1438-41 Details

Eagleson GW, Harris WA (1990), “Mapping of the presumptive brain regions in the neural plate of Xenopus laevis.” J Neurobiol 21(3):427-40 Details

Harris WA (1990), “Neurometamorphosis.” J Neurobiol 21(7):953-7 Details

Harris WA, Holt CE (1990), “Early events in the embryogenesis of the vertebrate visual system: cellular determination and pathfinding.” Annu Rev Neurosci 13:155-69 Details


Harris WA (1989), “Local positional cues in the neuroepithelium guide retinal axons in embryonic Xenopus brain.” Nature 339(6221):218-21 Details

Sakaguchi DS, Moeller JF, Coffman CR, Gallenson N, Harris WA (1989), “Growth cone interactions with a glial cell line from embryonic Xenopus retina.” Dev Biol 134(1):158-74 Details


Feiler R, Harris WA, Kirschfeld K, Wehrhahn C, Zuker CS (1988), “Targeted misexpression of a Drosophila opsin gene leads to altered visual function.” Nature 333(6175):737-41 Details

Harris WA (1988), “Neural differentiation: from message to mind.” Science 240(4849):229 Details

Holt CE, Bertsch TW, Ellis HM, Harris WA (1988), “Cellular determination in the Xenopus retina is independent of lineage and birth date.” Neuron 1(1):15-26 Details

Sakaguchi DS, Coffman CR, Gallenson N, Harris WA (1988), “A glial cell line promotes the outgrowth of neurites from embryonic Xenopus retina.” Acta Biol Hung 39(2-3):201-9 Details


Harris WA, Holt CE, Bonhoeffer F (1987), “Retinal axons with and without their somata, growing to and arborizing in the tectum of Xenopus embryos: a time-lapse video study of single fibres in vivo.” Development 101(1):123-33 Details


Harris WA (1986), “Homing behaviour of axons in the embryonic vertebrate brain.” Nature 320(6059):266-9 Details

Stryker MP, Harris WA (1986), “Binocular impulse blockade prevents the formation of ocular dominance columns in cat visual cortex.” J Neurosci 6(8):2117-33 Details


Harris WA (1985), “Genetics and development of the nervous system.” J Neurogenet 2(3):179-96 Details

Harris WA, Holt CE, Smith TA, Gallenson N (1985), “Growth cones of developing retinal cells in vivo, on culture surfaces, and in collagen matrices.” J Neurosci Res 13(1-2):101-22 Details


Harris WA (1984), “Axonal pathfinding in the absence of normal pathways and impulse activity.” J Neurosci 4(4):1153-62 Details

Harris WA, Cole J (1984), “Common mechanisms in vertebrate axonal navigation: retinal transplants between distantly related amphibia.” J Neurogenet 1(2):127-40 Details


Harris WA (1983), “Differences between embryos and adults in the plasticity of somatosensory afferents to the axolotl tectum.” Brain Res 283(2-3):245-55 Details

Holt CE, Harris WA (1983), “Order in the initial retinotectal map in Xenopus: a new technique for labelling growing nerve fibres.” Nature 301(5896):150-2 Details


Harris WA (1982), “The transplantation of eyes to genetically eyeless salamanders: visual projections and somatosensory interactions.” J Neurosci 2(3):339-53 Details


Harris WA (1981), “Neural activity and development.” Annu Rev Physiol 43:689-710 Details


Frank E, Harris WA, Kennedy MB (1980), “Lysophosphatidyl choline facilitates labeling of CNS projections with horseradish peroxidase.” J Neurosci Methods 2(2):183-9 Details

Harris WA (1980), “Regions of the brain influencing the projection of developing optic tracts in the salamander.” J Comp Neurol 194(2):319-33 Details

Harris WA (1980), “The effects of eliminating impulse activity on the development of the retinotectal projection in salamanders.” J Comp Neurol 194(2):303-17 Details


Harris WA, Ready DF, Lipson ED, Hudspeth AJ, Stark WS (1977), “Vitamin A deprivation and Drosophila photopigments.” Nature 266(5603):648-50 Details

Harris WA, Stark WS (1977), “Hereditary retinal degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. A mutant defect associated with the phototransduction process.” J Gen Physiol 69(3):261-91 Details


Harris WA, Stark WS, Walker JA (1976), “Genetic dissection of the photoreceptor system in the compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster.” J Physiol 256(2):415-39 Details


Quinn WG, Harris WA, Benzer S (1974), “Conditioned behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 71(3):708-12 Details


Harris WA (1972), “The maxillae of Drosophila melanogaster as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.” J Morphol 138(4):451-6 Details