Professor Emily Holmes


In the Emotional Disorders and Mental Imagery programme we investigate three areas:

Psychological trauma

Depressed mood

Bipolar disorder

Research Focus


Mental Imagery

Experimental Psychopathology



Bipolar Disorder

Clinical conditions

Bipolar disorder

Depressive disorders

Post-traumatic stress disorder


Experimental Psychopathology

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Randomised control trials


No collaborators listed

Associated News Items

    Key publications

    Holmes EA, Craske MG, Graybiel AM (2014), “Psychological treatments: A call for mental-health science.” Nature 511(7509):287-9 Details

    Bonsall MB, Wallace-Hadrill SM, Geddes JR, Goodwin GM, Holmes EA (2012), “Nonlinear time-series approaches in characterizing mood stability and mood instability in bipolar disorder.” Proc Biol Sci 279(1730):916-24 Details

    Holmes EA, James EL, Kilford EJ, Deeprose C (2010), “Key steps in developing a cognitive vaccine against traumatic flashbacks: visuospatial Tetris versus verbal Pub Quiz.” PLoS One 5(11):e13706 Details

    Holmes EA, Mathews A (2010), “Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders.” Clin Psychol Rev 30(3):349-62 Details

    Holmes EA, Lang TJ, Shah DM (2009), “Developing interpretation bias modification as a "cognitive vaccine" for depressed mood: imagining positive events makes you feel better than thinking about them verbally.” J Abnorm Psychol 118(1):76-88 Details

    Holmes EA, Mathews A (2005), “Mental imagery and emotion: a special relationship?” Emotion 5(4):489-97 Details

    Holmes EA, Brewin CR, Hennessy RG (2004), “Trauma films, information processing, and intrusive memory development.” J Exp Psychol Gen 133(1):3-22 Details



    Clark IA, Holmes EA, Woolrich MW, Mackay CE (2016), “Intrusive memories to traumatic footage: the neural basis of their encoding and involuntary recall” Psychol Med 46(3): 505-518

    Goodwin GM, Haddad PM, Ferrier IN, Aronson JK, Barnes T, Cipriani A, Coghill DR, Fazel S, Geddes JR, Grunze H, Holmes EA, Howes O, Hudson S, Hunt N, Jones I, Macmillan IC, McAllister-Williams H, Miklowitz DR, Morriss R, Munafò M, Paton C, Saharkian BJ, Saunders K, Sinclair J, Taylor D, Vieta E, Young AH (2016), “Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: revised third edition recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology” J Psychopharmacol pii: 0269881116636545 [epub ahead of print]

    Holmes EA, Bonsall MB, Hales SA, Mitchell H, Renner F, Blackwell SE, Watson P, Goodwin GM, Di Simplicio M (2016), “Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: a case series” Transl Psychiatry 6: e720

    Holmes, EA, Blackwell SE, Burnett Heyes S, Renner F, Raes F (2016), “Mental imagery in depression: phenomenology, potential mechanisms, and treatment implications” Annu Rev Clin Psychol 12: 249-280 [epub ahead of print]

    in press

    James EL, Lau-Zhu A, Tickle H, Horsch A, Holmes EA (in press), “Playing the computer game Tetris prior to viewing traumatic film material and subsequent intrusive memories: examining proactive interference” J Behav Ther Exp Psy

    Ji JL, Burnett Heyes S, MacLeod C, Holmes EA (in press), “Emotional mental imagery as simulation of reality: fear and beyond - a tribute to Peter Lang” Behav Ther


    Blackwell SE, Browning M, Mathews A, Pictet A, Welch J, Davies J, Watson P, Geddes JR, Holmes EA (2015), “Positive Imagery-Based Cognitive Bias Modification as a Web-Based Treatment Tool for Depressed Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Clin Psychol Sci 3(1):91-111 Details

    Bonsall MB, Geddes JR, Goodwin GM, Holmes EA (2015), “Bipolar disorder dynamics: affective instabilities, relaxation oscillations and noise” J R Soc Interface 12(112): pii 20150670

    Burnett Heyes S, Jih YR, Block P, Hiu CF, Holmes EA, Lau JY (2015), “Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects.” Child Dev Details

    Di Simplicio M, Holmes EA, Rathbone CJ (2015), “Self-images in the present and future: role of affect and the bipolar phenotype” J Affect Disord 187: 97-100

    James EL, Bonsall MB, Hoppitt L, Tunbridge EM, Geddes JR, Milton AL, Holmes EA (2015), “Computer Game Play Reduces Intrusive Memories of Experimental Trauma via Reconsolidation-Update Mechanisms.” Psychol Sci Details

    Murphy SE, Clare O'Donoghue M, Drazich EH, Blackwell SE, Christina Nobre A, Holmes EA (2015), “Imagining a brighter future: The effect of positive imagery training on mood, prospective mental imagery and emotional bias in older adults.” Psychiatry Res Details

    Nelis A, Holmes EA, Palmieri, R, Bellelli, G, Raes, F (2015), “Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT): a randomized controlled trial” Front Psychiatry 6(3)

    Nelis S, Holmes EA, Palmieri R, Bellelli G, Raes F (2015), “Thinking Back about a Positive Event: The Impact of Processing Style on Positive Affect.” Front Psychiatry 6:3 Details

    Nelis S, Holmes EA, Raes F (2015), “Response Styles to Positive Affect and Depression: Concurrent and Prospective Associations in a Community Sample.” Cognit Ther Res 39(4):480-491 Details

    Pearson J, Naselaris T, Holmes EA, Kosslyn SM (2015), “Mental imagery: functional mechanisms and clinical application” Trends Cog Sci 19(10):590-602

    Porcheret K, Holmes EA, Goodwin GM, Foster RG, Wulff K (2015), “Psychological Effect of an Analogue Traumatic Event Reduced by Sleep Deprivation.” Sleep 38(7):1017-25 Details

    Rathbone CJ, Holmes EA, Murphy SE, Ellis JA (2015), “Autobiographical memory and well-being in aging: The central role of semantic self-images.” Conscious Cogn 33:422-31 Details

    Williams AD, O'Moore K, Blackwell SE, Smith J, Holmes EA, Andrews G (2015), “Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT): A randomized controlled trial.” J Affect Disord 178:131-41 Details

    Zbozinek TD, Holmes EA, Craske MG (2015), “The effect of positive mood induction on reducing reinstatement fear: Relevance for long term outcomes of exposure therapy.” Behav Res Ther 71:65-75 Details


    Clark IA, Mackay CE, Holmes EA (2014), “Low emotional response to traumatic footage is associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks: An individual participant data meta-analysis of 16 trauma film paradigm experiments.” Cogn Emot :1-12 Details

    Clark IA, Niehaus KE, Duff EP, Di Simplicio MC, Clifford GD, Smith SM, Mackay CE, Woolrich MW, Holmes EA (2014), “First steps in using machine learning on fMRI data to predict intrusive memories of traumatic film footage.” Behav Res Ther Details

    Clarke PJ, Nanthakumar S, Notebaert L, Holmes EA, Blackwell SE, Macleod C (2014), “Simply Imagining Sunshine, Lollipops and Rainbows Will Not Budge the Bias: The Role of Ambiguity in Interpretive Bias Modification.” Cognit Ther Res 38:120-131 Details

    Malik A, Goodwin GM, Hoppitt L, Holmes EA (2014), “Hypomanic Experience in Young Adults Confers Vulnerability to Intrusive Imagery After Experimental Trauma: Relevance for Bipolar Disorder.” Clin Psychol Sci 2(6):675-684 Details

    Moritz S, Hörmann CC, Schröder J, Berger T, Jacob GA, Meyer B, Holmes EA, Späth C, Hautzinger M, Lutz W, Rose M, Klein JP (2014), “Beyond words: Sensory properties of depressive thoughts.” Cogn Emot 28(6):1047-56 Details

    Murphy SE, Braithwaite EC, Hubbard I, Williams KV, Tindall E, Holmes EA, Ramchandani PG (2014), “Salivary cortisol response to infant distress in pregnant women with depressive symptoms.” Arch Womens Ment Health Details

    Notebaert L, Chrystal J, Clarke PJ, Holmes EA, MacLeod C (2014), “When we should worry more: using cognitive bias modification to drive adaptive health behaviour.” PLoS One 9(1):e85092 Details

    Reiser EM, Weiss EM, Schulter G, Holmes EA, Fink A, Papousek I (2014), “Prefrontal-posterior coupling while observing the suffering of other people, and the development of intrusive memories.” Psychophysiology 51(6):546-55 Details

    Rohrbacher H, Blackwell SE, Holmes EA, Reinecke A (2014), “Optimizing the ingredients for imagery-based interpretation bias modification for depressed mood: is self-generation more effective than imagination alone?” J Affect Disord 152-154:212-8 Details

    Stratford HJ, Cooper MJ, Di Simplicio M, Blackwell SE, Holmes EA (2014), “Psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar spectrum disorders: A systematic review.” Clin Psychol Rev 35C:19-34 Details

    Torkan H, Blackwell SE, Holmes EA, Kalantari M, Neshat-Doost HT, Maroufi M, Talebi H (2014), “Positive Imagery Cognitive Bias Modification in Treatment-Seeking Patients with Major Depression in Iran: A Pilot Study.” Cognit Ther Res 38:132-145 Details


    Adams S, Penton-Voak IS, Harmer CJ, Holmes EA, Munafò MR (2013), “Effects of emotion recognition training on mood among individuals with high levels of depressive symptoms: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.” Trials 14:161 Details

    Andersson G, Carlbring P, Holmes EA (2013), “Special issue in honour of Lars-Göran Öst.” Cogn Behav Ther 42(4):259 Details

    Andersson G, Holmes EA, Carlbring P (2013), “Lars-Göran Öst.” Cogn Behav Ther 42(4):260-4 Details

    Blackwell SE, Rius-Ottenheim N, Schulte-van Maaren YW, Carlier IV, Middelkoop VD, Zitman FG, Spinhoven P, Holmes EA, Giltay EJ (2013), “Optimism and mental imagery: a possible cognitive marker to promote well-being?” Psychiatry Res 206(1):56-61 Details

    Boettcher J, Leek L, Matson L, Holmes EA, Browning M, MacLeod C, Andersson G, Carlbring P (2013), “Internet-based attention bias modification for social anxiety: a randomised controlled comparison of training towards negative and training towards positive cues.” PLoS One 8(9):e71760 Details

    Bourne C, Mackay CE, Holmes EA (2013), “The neural basis of flashback formation: the impact of viewing trauma.” Psychol Med 43(7):1521-32 Details

    Browning M, Blackwell SE, Holmes EA (2013), “The use of cognitive bias modification and imagery in the understanding and treatment of depression.” Curr Top Behav Neurosci 14:243-60 Details

    Burnett Heyes S, Lau JY, Holmes EA (2013), “Mental imagery, emotion and psychopathology across child and adolescent development.” Dev Cogn Neurosci 5:119-33 Details

    Clark IA, Mackay CE, Holmes EA (2013), “Positive involuntary autobiographical memories: you first have to live them.” Conscious Cogn 22(2):402-6 Details

    Mathews A, Ridgeway V, Holmes EA (2013), “Feels like the real thing: imagery is both more realistic and emotional than verbal thought.” Cogn Emot 27(2):217-29 Details

    Nelis S, Debeer E, Holmes EA, Raes F (2013), “Dysphoric students show higher use of the observer perspective in their retrieval of positive versus negative autobiographical memories.” Memory 21(4):423-30 Details

    Papousek I, Reiser EM, Schulter G, Fink A, Holmes EA, Niederstätter H, Nagl S, Parson W, Weiss EM (2013), “Serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) and electrocortical responses indicating the sensitivity to negative emotional cues.” Emotion 13(6):1173-81 Details

    Pearson DG, Deeprose C, Wallace-Hadrill SM, Burnett Heyes S, Holmes EA (2013), “Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: a review of imagery measures and a guiding framework.” Clin Psychol Rev 33(1):1-23 Details

    Telman MD, Holmes EA, Lau JY (2013), “Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: effects on negative affect and stress appraisals.” Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 44(5):602-11 Details

    Williams AD, Blackwell SE, Holmes EA, Andrews G (2013), “Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) versus control CBM and iCBT for depression: study protocol for a parallel-group randomised controlled trial.” BMJ Open 3(10):e004049 Details

    Williams AD, Blackwell SE, Mackenzie A, Holmes EA, Andrews G (2013), “Combining imagination and reason in the treatment of depression: a randomized controlled trial of internet-based cognitive-bias modification and internet-CBT for depression.” J Consult Clin Psychol 81(5):793-9 Details

    Woud ML, Postma P, Holmes EA, Mackintosh B (2013), “Reducing analogue trauma symptoms by computerized reappraisal training - considering a cognitive prophylaxis?” J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 44(3):312-5 Details


    Bridge H, Harrold S, Holmes EA, Stokes M, Kennard C (2012), “Vivid visual mental imagery in the absence of the primary visual cortex.” J Neurol 259(6):1062-70 Details

    Browning M, Holmes EA, Charles M, Cowen PJ, Harmer CJ (2012), “Using attentional bias modification as a cognitive vaccine against depression.” Biol Psychiatry 72(7):572-9 Details

    Crane C, Shah D, Barnhofer T, Holmes EA (2012), “Suicidal imagery in a previously depressed community sample.” Clin Psychol Psychother 19(1):57-69 Details

    Davies C, Malik A, Pictet A, Blackwell SE, Holmes EA (2012), “Involuntary memories after a positive film are dampened by a visuospatial task: unhelpful in depression but helpful in mania?” Clin Psychol Psychother 19(4):341-51 Details

    Deeprose C, Zhang S, Dejong H, Dalgleish T, Holmes EA (2012), “Imagery in the aftermath of viewing a traumatic film: using cognitive tasks to modulate the development of involuntary memory.” J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 43(2):758-64 Details

    Di Simplicio M, McInerney JE, Goodwin GM, Attenburrow MJ, Holmes EA (2012), “Revealing the mind's eye: bringing (mental) images into psychiatry.” Am J Psychiatry 169(12):1245-6 Details

    Lang TJ, Blackwell SE, Harmer CJ, Davison P, Holmes EA (2012), “Cognitive Bias Modification Using Mental Imagery for Depression: Developing a Novel Computerized Intervention to Change Negative Thinking Styles.” Eur J Pers 26(2):145-157 Details

    Macleod C, Holmes EA (2012), “Cognitive bias modification: an intervention approach worth attending to.” Am J Psychiatry 169(2):118-20 Details

    Miklowitz DJ, Price J, Holmes EA, Rendell J, Bell S, Budge K, Christensen J, Wallace J, Simon J, Armstrong NM, McPeake L, Goodwin GM, Geddes JR (2012), “Facilitated Integrated Mood Management for adults with bipolar disorder.” Bipolar Disord 14(2):185-97 Details

    Woud ML, Holmes EA, Postma P, Dalgleish T, Mackintosh B (2012), “Ameliorating intrusive memories of distressing experiences using computerized reappraisal training.” Emotion 12(4):778-84 Details


    Berna C, Lang TJ, Goodwin GM, Holmes EA (2011), “Developing a measure of interpretation bias for depressed mood: An ambiguous scenarios test.” Pers Individ Dif 51(3):349-354 Details

    Berna C, Vincent K, Moore J, Tracey I, Goodwin GM, Holmes EA (2011), “Presence of mental imagery associated with chronic pelvic pain: a pilot study.” Pain Med 12(7):1086-93 Details

    Browning M, Grol M, Ly V, Goodwin GM, Holmes EA, Harmer CJ (2011), “Using an experimental medicine model to explore combination effects of pharmacological and cognitive interventions for depression and anxiety.” Neuropsychopharmacology 36(13):2689-97 Details

    Deeprose C, Malik A, Holmes EA (2011), “Measuring Intrusive Prospective Imagery using the Impact of Future Events Scale (IFES): Psychometric properties and relation to risk for Bipolar Disorder.” Int J Cogn Ther 4(2):187-196 Details

    Hales SA, Deeprose C, Goodwin GM, Holmes EA (2011), “Cognitions in bipolar affective disorder and unipolar depression: imagining suicide.” Bipolar Disord 13(7-8):651-61 Details

    Holmes EA, Deeprose C, Fairburn CG, Wallace-Hadrill SM, Bonsall MB, Geddes JR, Goodwin GM (2011), “Mood stability versus mood instability in bipolar disorder: a possible role for emotional mental imagery.” Behav Res Ther 49(10):707-13 Details

    Lothmann C, Holmes EA, Chan SW, Lau JY (2011), “Cognitive bias modification training in adolescents: effects on interpretation biases and mood.” J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52(1):24-32 Details

    Morina N, Deeprose C, Pusowski C, Schmid M, Holmes EA (2011), “Prospective mental imagery in patients with major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders.” J Anxiety Disord 25(8):1032-7 Details

    Murphy FC, Barnard PJ, Terry KA, Carthery-Goulart MT, Holmes EA (2011), “SenseCam, imagery and bias in memory for wellbeing.” Memory 19(7):768-77 Details

    Pictet A, Coughtrey AE, Mathews A, Holmes EA (2011), “Fishing for happiness: the effects of generating positive imagery on mood and behaviour.” Behav Res Ther 49(12):885-91 Details


    Berna C, Leknes S, Holmes EA, Edwards RR, Goodwin GM, Tracey I (2010), “Induction of depressed mood disrupts emotion regulation neurocircuitry and enhances pain unpleasantness.” Biol Psychiatry 67(11):1083-90 Details

    Bourne C, Frasquilho F, Roth AD, Holmes EA (2010), “Is it mere distraction? Peri-traumatic verbal tasks can increase analogue flashbacks but reduce voluntary memory performance.” J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 41(3):316-24 Details

    Browning M, Holmes EA, Harmer CJ (2010), “The modification of attentional bias to emotional information: A review of the techniques, mechanisms, and relevance to emotional disorders.” Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 10(1):8-20 Details

    Browning M, Holmes EA, Murphy SE, Goodwin GM, Harmer CJ (2010), “Lateral prefrontal cortex mediates the cognitive modification of attentional bias.” Biol Psychiatry 67(10):919-25 Details

    Deeprose C, Holmes EA (2010), “An exploration of prospective imagery: the impact of future events scale.” Behav Cogn Psychother 38(2):201-9 Details

    Hagenaars MA, Brewin CR, van Minnen A, Holmes EA, Hoogduin KA (2010), “Intrusive images and intrusive thoughts as different phenomena: two experimental studies.” Memory 18(1):76-84 Details

    Holmes EA, Sandberg A, Iyadurai L (2010), “Erasing trauma memories.” Br J Psychiatry 197(5):414-5 Details

    Krans J, Näring G, Holmes EA, Becker ES (2010), “Motion effects on intrusion development.” J Trauma Dissociation 11(1):73-82 Details

    Krans J, Näring G, Holmes EA, Becker ES (2010), “"I see what you're saying": intrusive images from listening to a traumatic verbal report.” J Anxiety Disord 24(1):134-40 Details

    Steel C, Wykes T, Ruddle A, Smith G, Shah DM, Holmes EA (2010), “Can we harness computerised cognitive bias modification to treat anxiety in schizophrenia? A first step highlighting the role of mental imagery.” Psychiatry Res 178(3):451-5 Details

    West K, Hewstone M, Holmes EA (2010), “Rethinking 'mental health stigma'.” Eur J Public Health 20(2):131-2 Details


    Goodwin GM, Holmes EA (2009), “Bipolar anxiety.” Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment 2(2):95-8 Details

    Hardy A, Young K, Holmes EA (2009), “Does trauma memory play a role in the experience of reporting sexual assault during police interviews? An exploratory study.” Memory 17(8):783-8 Details

    Holmes EA, James EL, Coode-Bate T, Deeprose C (2009), “Can playing the computer game "Tetris" reduce the build-up of flashbacks for trauma? A proposal from cognitive science.” PLoS One 4(1):e4153 Details

    Holmes EA, Lang TJ, Deeprose C (2009), “Mental imagery and emotion in treatment across disorders: using the example of depression.” Cogn Behav Ther 38 Suppl 1:21-8 Details

    Krans J, Näring G, Holmes EA, Becker ES (2009), “Tell me more: Can a memory test reduce analogue traumatic intrusions?” Behav Res Ther 47(5):426-30 Details

    Lang TJ, Moulds ML, Holmes EA (2009), “Reducing depressive intrusions via a computerized cognitive bias modification of appraisals task: developing a cognitive vaccine.” Behav Res Ther 47(2):139-45 Details

    Lilley SA, Andrade J, Turpin G, Sabin-Farrell R, Holmes EA (2009), “Visuospatial working memory interference with recollections of trauma.” Br J Clin Psychol 48(Pt 3):309-21 Details


    Grey N, Holmes EA (2008), “"Hotspots" in trauma memories in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a replication.” Memory 16(7):788-96 Details

    Holmes EA, Bourne C (2008), “Inducing and modulating intrusive emotional memories: a review of the trauma film paradigm.” Acta Psychol (Amst) 127(3):553-66 Details

    Holmes EA, Coughtrey AE, Connor A (2008), “Looking at or through rose-tinted glasses? Imagery perspective and positive mood.” Emotion 8(6):875-9 Details

    Holmes EA, Geddes JR, Colom F, Goodwin GM (2008), “Mental imagery as an emotional amplifier: application to bipolar disorder.” Behav Res Ther 46(12):1251-8 Details

    Holmes EA, Lang TJ, Moulds ML, Steele AM (2008), “Prospective and positive mental imagery deficits in dysphoria.” Behav Res Ther 46(8):976-81 Details

    Holmes EA, Mathews A, Mackintosh B, Dalgleish T (2008), “The causal effect of mental imagery on emotion assessed using picture-word cues.” Emotion 8(3):395-409 Details

    Steel C, Mahmood M, Holmes EA (2008), “Positive schizotypy and trait dissociation as vulnerability factors for post-traumatic distress.” Br J Clin Psychol 47(Pt 2):245-9 Details


    Holmes EA, Arntz A, Smucker MR (2007), “Imagery rescripting in cognitive behaviour therapy: images, treatment techniques and outcomes.” J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38(4):297-305 Details

    Holmes EA, Crane C, Fennell MJ, Williams JM (2007), “Imagery about suicide in depression--"Flash-forwards"?” J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38(4):423-34 Details

    Holmes EA, Creswell C, O'Connor TG (2007), “Posttraumatic stress symptoms in London school children following September 11, 2001: an exploratory investigation of peri-traumatic reactions and intrusive imagery.” J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38(4):474-90 Details

    Holmes EA, Moulds ML, Kavanagh D (2007), “Memory suppression in PTSD treatment?” Science 318(5857):1722; author reply 1722 Details


    Holmes EA, Mathews A, Dalgleish T, Mackintosh B (2006), “Positive interpretation training: effects of mental imagery versus verbal training on positive mood.” Behav Ther 37(3):237-47 Details

    Holmes EA, Oakley DA, Stuart AD, Brewin CR (2006), “Investigating peri-traumatic dissociation using hypnosis during a traumatic film.” J Trauma Dissociation 7(4):91-113 Details

    Stuart AD, Holmes EA, Brewin CR (2006), “The influence of a visuospatial grounding task on intrusive images of a traumatic film.” Behav Res Ther 44(4):611-9 Details


    Holmes EA, Brown RJ, Mansell W, Fearon RP, Hunter EC, Frasquilho F, Oakley DA (2005), “Are there two qualitatively distinct forms of dissociation? A review and some clinical implications.” Clin Psychol Rev 25(1):1-23 Details

    Holmes EA, Grey N, Young KA (2005), “Intrusive images and "hotspots" of trauma memories in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: an exploratory investigation of emotions and cognitive themes.” J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 36(1):3-17 Details


    Day SJ, Holmes EA, Hackmann A (2004), “Occurrence of imagery and its link with early memories in agoraphobia.” Memory 12(4):416-27 Details

    Hackmann A, Holmes EA (2004), “Reflecting on imagery: a clinical perspective and overview of the special issue of memory on mental imagery and memory in psychopathology.” Memory 12(4):389-402 Details

    Holmes EA, Hackmann A (2004), “A healthy imagination? Editorial for the special issue of memory: mental imagery and memory in psychopathology.” Memory 12(4):387-8 Details

    Holmes EA, Steel C (2004), “Schizotypy: a vulnerability factor for traumatic intrusions.” J Nerv Ment Dis 192(1):28-34 Details


    Brewin CR, Holmes EA (2003), “Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder.” Clin Psychol Rev 23(3):339-76 Details