Horace Barlow


My aim has been to understand the visual system at the level of its neurons and their interactions, because I think this is the level that holds the key to a quantitative understanding of the useful work our brains do for us. For tasks requiring the detection of regularity in random dot displays, this work can be measured by estimating the statistical efficiency with which the task can be performed when the amount of noise is deliberately varied by the experimenter. The same measure can be applied to psychophysical responses, to measured responses of single neurons, and also to computational models of how the neurons mediate the responses. For some tasks, otherwise plausible models cannot perform as well as single neurons and intact brains, and in these cases the models are proved wrong. This should lead to viable models of how neurons collaborate to detect the regularities, symmetries and suspicious coincidences that are required for intelligent cognitive judgments.

Research Focus







Clinical conditions


But the methods may be applicable to:-





Cell culture

Visual psychophysics



Bruno Olshausen Web: http://www.pdn.cam.ac.uk/staff/b...

Associated News Items

    Key publications

    Barlow H (2013), “Linking minds and brains.” Vis Neurosci 30(5-6):207-17 PDF Details

    Barlow HB,Berry DL, (2010), “Cross- and auto-correlation in early vision” Proceedings of the Royal Society PDF

    Barlow HB (2009), “Grandmother Cells, Symmetry, and Invariance: How the Term Arose and What the Facts Suggest.” The Cognitive Neurosciences, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. Ch21: 309-320 PDF



    Bowns L, Barlow HB (2011), “Perceived motion is influenced by random dynamic information.” Perception 40(2):135-42 Details


    Barlow HB (2009), “Single units and sensation: a neuron doctrine for perceptual psychology?” Perception 38(6):795-8 Details

    H B Barlow, A J Parker, W Singer and S J Thorpe (2009), “Barlow’s 1972 paper on single units and sensation” Perception 38, 795-807


    H B Barlow (2006), “ Review of “Seeing, Doing and Knowing: A Philosophical Theory of Sense Perception” by Mohan Mathan. ” BioEssays Wiley Periodicals. vol: 28 1056-1059. PDF


    Barlow HB, Olshausen BA (2004), “Convergent evidence for the visual analysis of optic flow through anisotropic attenuation of high spatial frequencies.” J Vis 4(6):415-26 PDF Details

    H B Barlow (2004), “Consciousness, Communication, civilisation” Oxford Companion to the mind,2nd edition (ed Richard Gregory) pp 219-221 PDF


    BARLOW, H (2003), “The Role of single neurons in the past and future of neurobiology” Visual Neuroscience (eds L Chalupa and J Werner). MIT Press . Ch 2 pp 14-29 PDF


    Barlow HB (2002), “Are sceptics and believers both wrong?” The Paranormal Review vol: 23: 18-21 PDF

    BARLOW, HB (2002), “Hidden agenda.” Perception and the Physical World. Chichester, England: John (Eds Dieter Heyer and Rainer Mausfeld). Wiley and Sons,Ltd Ch 12, pp 307-316 PDF

    BARLOW, HB (2002), “Cognition as code-breaking” Ch 2, pp 21-35 in Perception and the Physical Worlld (Eds Dieter Heyer and Rainer Mausfeld)


    Gardner-Medwin AR, Barlow HB (2001), “The limits of counting accuracy in distributed neural representations.” Neural Comput 13(3):477-504 PDF Details

    H B BARLOW (2001), “The exploitation of regularities in the environmeent by the brain” Brain and Behavioural Sciences 24: 602-607 PDF

    H B BARLOW (2001), “Redundancy Reduction Revisiited” Network: computation in neural systems 24:241-253 PDF


    H. B. Barlow & A. R. Gardner-Medwin (2000), “Localist representation can improve effieciency for detection and counting (BBS commentary on article on connectionist modelling by Mike Page) ” Behavioral and brain sciences 23:467- PDF

    Wong W, Barlow H (2000), “Tunes and templates.” Nature 404(6781):952-3 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1999), “Cerebral Cortex” The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (eds WILSON RA KEIL FC} pp 111-113 PDF

    BARLOW HB, (1999), “Feature Detectors” The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (eds WILSON RA KEIL FC}, pp 311-313 PDF

    MOGI K, BARLOW HB (1999), “The source of variability in neural responses from MT” Journal of Physiology (London) 515: 101-102P PDF

    TRIPATHY S P, BARLOW H B, (1999), “Spatio-temporal tuning and summation in the mechanisms for detecting global motion. ” ARVO abstract 1999. PDF

    Tripathy SP, Mussap AJ, Barlow HB (1999), “Detecting collinear dots in noise.” Vision Res 39(25):4161-71 PDF Details


    BARLOW H B (1998), “ Prediction, inference, and the homunculus.” Commentary on article by Pessoa et al on Filling-Iin(BBS Com n) Behavioural and Brain Science 21(6), 750-751 PDF

    Barlow H (1998), “Cerebral predictions.” Perception 27(8):885-8 PDF Details

    BARLOW HB (1998), “The nested networks of brains and minds. ” CIBA Foundation Symposium # 213 on Limits of Reductionism in Biology. ed L Wolpert CIBA Foundation Symposium # 213 PDF

    TRIPATHY SP, BARLOW HB (1998), “Coherent motion between non-adjacent fields of a random dot kinematogram” Journal of Physiology 506:86-87 P


    ANDERSON J, BARLOW HB, GREGORY R, (1997), “Organisers' Introduction.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. PDF

    BARLOW HB . (1997), “Adaptation by hyperpolarization” Science "Perspective", May 1997. PDF

    Barlow HB (1997), “The knowledge used in vision and where it comes from.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 352(1358):1141-7 PDF Details

    BARLOW HB (1997), “Single neurons, communal goals, and consciousness” In M. Ito, Y. Miyashita & E. T. Rolls (Eds.), Cognition, computation, and consciousness (pp. 121-136). Oxford: Oxford University Press. PDF

    BARLOW HB, TRIPATHY SP (1997), “Correspondence noise and signal pooling in the detection of coherent visual motion” Journal of Neuroscience 17: 7954-7966 PDF

    BONNARDEL V, RUDERMAN DL, BARLOW HB (1997), “Fast determination of the spectral modulation function:a comparison between trichromats and deuteranopes” Colour Vision Deficiencies XIII (ed CAVONIUS CR pp 415-424 PDF

    Carandini M, Barlow HB, O'Keefe LP, Poirson AB, Movshon JA (1997), “Adaptation to contingencies in macaque primary visual cortex.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 352(1358):1149-54 PDF Details

    TRIPATHY SP, BARLOW HB. (1997), “Correspondence noise limits to global motion perception. ” Invited talk to be given at the Symposium “Limits to Visual Perception: A Comparative Approach” on Aug. 25 at the European Conference on Visual Perception held in Helsinki.

    TRIPATHY SP, BARLOW HB, (1997), “Correspondence noise limit to motion perception in stimuli with multiple frames. ” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.), 38/4, pp.S375.


    BARLOW HB (1996), “The psychology of the frog's retina.” The Experimental Psychology Society 1946-1996. (ed J D Mollon): Experimental Psychology Society, Cambridge 1996 PDF

    BARLOW HB (1996), “Intraneural information processing,directional selectivity, and memory for phase sequences” Network:Computation in neural systems 7:251-259 PDF

    BARLOW HB, (1996), “A forest of principles” Current Biology 6:100 PDF

    Pelah A, Barlow HB (1996), “Visual illusion from running.” Nature 381(6580):283 PDF Details

    TRIPATHY SP, BARLOW HB (1996), “The effect of dot number on correspondence noise in random dot kinematograms.” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.) 37/3, pp.S745. PDF

    TRIPATHY SP, MUSSAP, AJ, BARLOW, HB (1996), “Perceptual grouping of dots in noise” Perception (Suppl.) 25: 3 PDF


    BARLOW HB (1995), “Cell assemblies versus single cells” Brain Theory: Biological Basis and Computational Theory of Vision. Proceedings of the 5th International Meeting on Brain Theory, Trento, Italy, 5-7 April 1994. Edited by A Aertsen and V Braitenberg. PDF

    BARLOW HB, (1995), “ Banishing the Homunculus” Perception as Bayesian Inference ( D. Knill and W. Richards eds.) Cambridge University Press:Cambridge UK. PDF



    BARLOW HB (1994), “The Neuron Doctrine in Perception” Chapter in The Cognitive Neurosciences, ed M Gazzaniga. Boston; MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass PDF


    BARLOW HB (1993), “What is the Computational Goal of the Neocortex? ” Chapter in Large scale neuronal theories of the brain, (eds Christof Koch and Joel Davis). MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass PDF

    BARLOW HB . (1993), “Object identification and cortical organisation” In The Functional Organisation of the Human Visual Cortex, (eds B Gulyas, David Ottoson and Per Roland). Oxford: Pergamon Press PDF


    BARLOW H B, TOLHURST DJ (1992), “Why do you have edge detectors?” In 1992 Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, 1992 Technical Digest series volume 23 (pp. 172). Albuquerque, NM: Washington: Optical Society of America. PDF

    BARLOW HB (1992), “The Biological Role of Neocortex.” pp 53-80 in Information Processing in the cortex. Eds A Aertsen and V Braitenberg. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

    BARLOW HB (1992), “Independence, ” pp167-168 in Information processing in the cortex Eds A Aertsen and V Braitenberg. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

    BARLOW HB. (1992), “Neurons as Computational Elements,” pp175-178) in Information Processing in the Cortex, Eds A Aertsen and V Braitenberg. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

    GARDNER-MEDWIN AR, BARLOW HB . (1992), “The effect of sparseness in distributed representations on the detectability of associations between sensory events” Journal of Physiology 452: 282P PDF


    BARLOW HB . (1991), “Vision tells you more than “What is Where”” In A. Gorea (Ed.), Representations of Vision Cambridge,UK: Cambridge University Press. PDF

    BARLOW HB (1991), “Final report ” Depth and Motion Analysis.Esprit project P 940, PDF

    HENTSCHEl HG, BARLOW HB (1991), “Minimum entropy coding with Hopfield networks” Network 2:135-148 PDF


    BARLOW HB (1990), “What does the brain see? How does it understand?” Images and Understanding, H.B. Barlow, C.B. Blakemore and E.M. Weston- Smith (Eds). Cambridge University Press. PDF

    BARLOW HB (1990), “The Mechanical Mind” Annual Review of Neuroscience 13:15-24 PDF

    BARLOW HB, (1990), “Conditions for versatile learning, Helmholtz's unconscious inference, and the task of perception” Vision Research 30:1561-1571 PDF

    BARLOW HB, HODGKIN D, (1990), “A review of : Blindsight by Weiskrantz, L. and To See But Not To See by Humphreys, G.W. and Riddoch, M.J. ” Q. J. Expl. Psychology.. 42A:173-188 PDF

    BARLOW HB,. . (1990), “A theory about the functional role and synaptic mechanism of visual after-effects” Vision: coding and efficiency, C B Blakemore (Ed). Cambridge University Press. PDF

    BARLOW HB,.. (1990), “Communication and Representation in the brain” In H. W. Mellor, & P. Johnson-Laird (Ed.), Communication; The Darwin Lectures 1989 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF


    HENTSCHEL HG, BARLOW HB,FOLDIAK P (1989), “Path planning by a mobile vehicle using VLSI design automation algortithms.” In Esprit project P 940, Depth and Motion Analysis. Report R 4 3 1 Motion Planning and Tracking.

    BARLOW HB (1989), “Unsupervised learning” Neural Computation 1: 295-311 PDF

    BARLOW HB, FOLDIAK P (1989), “Adaptation and decorrelation in the cortex. ” In R. Durbin, C. Miall, & G. Mitchison (Ed.), The Computing Neuron (pp. 54-72). Wokingham, England: Addison-Wesley. PDF

    BARLOW HB, KAUSHAL TP, MITCHISON GJ (1989), “Finding minimum entropy codes” Neural Computation 1:406-416 PDF


    BARLOW HB (1988), “A comment on: Eye, Brain and Vision by Hubel, D.H. [Published by Scientific American Library, New York (1988)]” New Scientist 1611, 5 May 1988 p67. PDF

    Barlow HB (1988), “The thermal limit to seeing.” Nature 334(6180):296-7 PDF Details

    BARLOW HB (1988), “ A comment on: Mental Processes: Studies in Cognitive Science by Longuet-Higgins, H.C. Published by MIT Press, Mass. (1987). ” Q. J. Expl Psychology. 41A, 417-420 PDF

    BARLOW HB (1988), “Neuroscience: a new era?" A comment on: Neural Darwinism: The Theory of Neuronal Group Selection by Edelman, G.M. Basic Books Inc., New York,(1987) ” Nature 331: p571 PDF

    FIELD DJ, KERSTEN D, BARLOW HB, (1988), “Is redundancy increased or dEcreased in visual coding?” ARVO Abstract 1988 PDF

    HENTSCHEL HG, BARLOW, HB, (1988), “The two-dimensional global matcher. ” in Esprit project P 940, Depth and Motion Analysis. Report R 4 2 1 Matching GeoRepresentations.

    Snyder AW, Barlow HB (1988), “Human vision. Revealing the artist's touch.” Nature 331(6152):117-8 PDF Details

    VERGHES EP, PELLI DG, BARLOW HB (1988), “ Detecting the absence of motion” ARVO 1988 abtracts PDF


    BARLOW HB, (1987), “The biological role of consciousness.” Mindwaves, C. Blakemore and S. Greenfield (Eds). Basil Blackwell, Oxford, pp 361-374. PDF

    BARLOW HB (1987), “Hubel and Wiesel: Joint work” The Oxford Companion to the Mind, R.L. Gregory (Ed.). Oxford University Press, pp 313-315. PDF

    BARLOW HB,. (1987), “Intelligence: the art of good guesswork” The Oxford Companion to the Mind. R.L. Gregory (Ed.). Oxford University Press, pp 381-383. PDF

    BARLOW HB,. (1987), “Efficiency, versatility, cognitive maps and language.” A comment on The comparative psychology of ntelligence by E. Macphail, Behavioural and Brain Sciences. 10:4, 657-658. PDF

    Barlow HB, Kaushal TP, Hawken M, Parker AJ (1987), “Human contrast discrimination and the threshold of cortical neurons.” J Opt Soc Am A 4(12):2366-71 PDF Details

    Maloney RK, Mitchison GJ, Barlow HB (1987), “Limit to the detection of Glass patterns in the presence of noise.” J Opt Soc Am A 4(12):2336-41 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1986), “ Why can't the eye see better?” Visual Neuroscience, J.D. Pettigrew, K.J. Sanderson & W.R. Levick (Eds). P O Bishop Festschrift, 1984. Cambridge: CUP.pp 3-18. PDF

    Barlow HB (1986), “William Rushton: 8 December 1901-21 June 1980.” Biogr Mem Fellows R Soc 32:421-59 PDF Details

    Barlow HB (1986), “Why have multiple cortical areas?” Vision Res 26(1):81-90 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1985), “Cerebral cortex as a model builder.” Models of the Visual Cortex, D. Rose and V. Dobson (Eds), John Wiley: Chichester.pp. 37-46. (Also in: Matters of Intelligence, L.M. Vaina (Ed.), 1987 pp. 395 406. PDF

    BARLOW HB (1985), “The role of nature, nurture and intelligence in pattern recognition.” Pontificae Academiae Scientiarvm Scripta Varia 54, 121 308, C. Chagas, R. Gattass and C. Gross (Eds). Also in: Pattern Recognition Mechanisms, C. Chagas, R. Gattass and C. Gross (Eds), Experimental Brain Research Supplementum 11 (1986), Springer, Berlin. PDF

    Barlow HB (1985), “The twelfth Bartlett memorial lecture: the role of single neurons in the psychology of perception.” Q J Exp Psychol A 37(2):121-45 PDF Details

    H.B Barlow (1985), “Perception: what quantitative laws govern the acquisition of knowledge from the senses” Wolfson College Lectures (1982)

    KERSTEN D, BARLOW HB (1985), “Why are contrast thresholds so high? ” ARVO Suppl. to Invest. Ophthal. & Vis. Sci. Vol. 26, 140. PDF


    BARLOW HB (1984), “Some simple observations on the combination of visual information from binocular and motion parallax” Computational Models of Hearing and Vision, Symposium held in Tallinn, Nov 19-21, 1984, pp 63-65. PDF

    KERSTEN D, BARLOW HB (1984), “Searching for the high-contrast patterns we see best. ” Suppl. to Invest. Ophthal. & Vis. Sci. Vol. 25, No. 3, p 313(2). PDF

    Phillips CG, Zeki S, Barlow HB (1984), “Localization of function in the cerebral cortex. Past, present and future.” Brain 107 ( Pt 1):327-61 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1983), “If there are cortical modules, what do they do?” Proc.International Union of Physiological Sciences, 29th Congress, Sydney, Australia. Abstract 410.03, p. 327.

    BARLOW HB (1983), “Understanding natural vision” Physical and Biological Processing of Images. O.J. Braddick and A.C. Sleigh (Eds), Springer series in Information Sciences 11:2-14.

    BARLOW HB, GEMPERLEIN R, PAUL R, STEINER, A (1983), “Human contrast sensitivity for comb-filtered spectra” J. Physiol 340: 50P

    Barlow HB (1983), “Intelligence, guesswork, language.” Nature 304(5923):207-9 Details

    BARLOW HB (1983), “Visual coding: the retina” Proceedings of the International Union of Physiological Sciences, 29th Congress, Sydney, Australia, Abstract 166.02, p. 72.

    Burgess A, Barlow HB (1983), “The precision of numerosity discrimination in arrays of random dots.” Vision Res 23(8):811-20 PDF Details

    Levick WR, Thibos LN, Cohn TE, Catanzaro D, Barlow HB (1983), “Performance of cat retinal ganglion cells at low light levels.” J Gen Physiol 82(3):405-26 Details

    Watson AB, Barlow HB, Robson JG (1983), “What does the eye see best?” Nature 302(5907):419-22 Details


    BARLOW HB (1982), “The past, present and future of feature detectors” Recognition of Pattern and Form (Ed. D.G. Albrecht); Lecture notes in Biomathematics, Springer Verlag: Berlin 44:4-32

    BARLOW HB, MOLLON JD, (Eds) (1982), “The Senses. ” Cambridge Texts in the Physiological Sciences, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge(UK), Vol 3

    BARLOW HB (1982), “David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel. Their contribution towards understanding the primary visual cortex” Trends in Neuroscience 5:145-152. PDF

    Barlow HB (1982), “What causes trichromacy? A theoretical analysis using comb-filtered spectra.” Vision Res 22(6):635-43 PDF Details

    Sakitt B, Barlow HB (1982), “A model for the economical encoding of the visual image in cerebral cortex.” Biol Cybern 43(2):97-108 Details


    BARLOW HB (1981), “Physiological linking hypotheses” Report of 12th Symposium of the Center for Visual Sciences, University of Rochester, New York ."Relating Physiology to Psychophysics: current problems and approaches" (Eds W. Makous, D. Hood, T. Pasternak & D. Green.)

    Barlow HB (1981), “The Ferrier Lecture, 1980. Critical limiting factors in the design of the eye and visual cortex.” Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 212(1186):1-34 PDF Details

    Burgess AE, Wagner RF, Jennings RJ, Barlow HB (1981), “Efficiency of human visual signal discrimination.” Science 214(4516):93-4 PDF Details

    van Meeteren A, Barlow HB (1981), “The statistical efficiency for detecting sinusoidal modulation of average dot density in random figures.” Vision Res 21(6):765-77 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1980), “Theories of cortical function and measurement of its performance.” In: Neurobiological Basis of Learning and Memory, Y Tsukada and B W Agranoff (Eds),

    BARLOW HB, MCNAUGHTON PA (1980), “ Illusory curvature caused by retinal delay” J. Physiol 308, 11-12P.

    Barlow HB (1980), “The absolute efficiency of perceptual decisions.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 290(1038):71-82 PDF Details

    BARLOW HB (1980), “Visual cortex and psychophysics of vision” Neurosci. Letters Supplement 5: S3.

    BARLOW HB (1980), “Cortical function: a tentative theory and preliminary test.” Neural Mechanisms in Behaviour, pp 143-171 D.McFadden (Ed.), Springer-Verlag: New York


    BARLOW HB (1979), “Three theories of cortical function. ” Developmental Neurobiology of Vision, R.D. Freeman (Ed.), Plenum Press: New York, pp 1-16.

    BARLOW HB (1979), “ Nature's Joke: A conjecture on the biological role of consciousness” Consciousness and the Physical World (Eds B.D. Josephson and V.S. Ramachandran ), Pergamon Press: Oxford. pp 81-90.

    Barlow HB (1979), “Reconstructing the visual image in space and time.” Nature 279(5710):189-90 Details

    Barlow HB, Reeves BC (1979), “The versatility and absolute efficiency of detecting mirror symmetry in random dot displays.” Vision Res 19(7):783-93 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1978), “The absolute efficiency of human pattern detection. ” Frontiers in Visual Science, S.J. Cool, E.L. Smith III and D.L. MacAdam (Eds), pp 240-252, Springer Verlag: New York.

    Barlow HB (1978), “The efficiency of detecting changes of density in random dot patterns.” Vision Res 18(6):637-50 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1977), “Performance, perception, dark-light, and gain boxes.” Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 15: 394-397.

    BARLOW HB, (1977), “ Retinal and central factors in human vision limited by noise.” Photoreception in Vertebrates (Eds H.B. Barlow and P. Fatt), Academic Press: London. PDF

    Barlow HB, Derrington AM, Harris LR, Lennie P (1977), “The effects of remote retinal stimulation on the responses of cat retinal ganglion cells.” J Physiol 269(1):177-94 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1976), “ Is neurobiology totally non-mathematicall?” Lectures on Mathematics in the Life Sciences of the American Mathematical Society. Vol 8

    BARLOW HB, (1976), “The languages of the brain.” The Encyclopaedia of Ignorance, M. Weston-Smith and R. Duncan (Eds), Vol. 2. Pergamon Press: Oxford.

    Barlow HB, Levick WR (1976), “Threshold setting by the surround of cat retinal ganglion cells.” J Physiol 259(3):737-57 PDF Details

    Barlow HB, Macleod DI, van Meeteren A (1976), “Adaptation to gratings: no compensatory advantages found.” Vision Res 16(10):1043-5 PDF Details

    BARLOW HB,VAN MEETEREN A (1976), “Measuring the efficiency of detecting patterns in random dots” J. Physiology 254: 10P.

    LENNIE P, DERRINGTON AM, HARRIS LR, BARLOW HB (1976), “ McIlwain's peripheral shift effect” Neuroscience Letters 3: 98-99 PDF


    Barlow HB (1975), “Visual experience and cortical development.” Nature 258(5532):199-204 Details

    Wilcox JG, Barlow HB (1975), “The size and shape of the pupil in lightly anaesthetized cats as a function of luminance.” Vision Res 15(12):1363-5 PDF Details


    Barlow HB (1974), “Inductive inference, coding, perception, and language.” Perception 3(2):123-34 PDF Details

    Barlow HB, Blakemore C, Van Sluyters RC (1974), “Proceedings: Measurement of residual eye movements during the analysis of disparity of receptive fields of visual neurones.” J Physiol 242(2):38P-39P Details

    BARLOW HB: (1974), “ Redundancy and perception.” Proceedings of the Summer School on the Physics and Mathematics of the Nervous System at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. Springer Lecture Note Series in Biomathematics (ed.).


    Barlow HB, Andrews DP (1973), “The site at which rhodopsin bleaching raises the scotopic threshold.” Vision Res 13(5):903-8 PDF Details

    Barlow HB, Sakitt B (1973), “Doubts about scotopic interactions in stabilized vision.” Vision Res 13(2):523-4 PDF Details

    PETTIGREW J, OLSON C, BARLOW HB (1973), “Kitten visual cortex: short-term, stimulus-induced changes in connectivity” Science 180:1202-1203. PDF


    BARLOW HB (1972), “ Dark and light adaptation: psychophysics. ” Handbook of Sensory Physiology. (EDS .A. Jameson and L.M. Hurvich ), Springer-Verlag: Berlin 7:(4) 1-28.

    Barlow HB (1972), “Rate of dark adaptation in the cat.” Vision Res 12(1):139-40 PDF Details

    Barlow HB (1972), “Single units and sensation: a neuron doctrine for perceptual psychology?” Perception 1(4):371-94 PDF Details

    Barlow HB, Narasimhan R, Rosenfeld A (1972), “Visual pattern analysis in machines and animals.” Science 177(4049):567-75 PDF Details

    Barlow HB, Ostwald TJ (1972), “Pecten of the pigeon's eye as an inter-ocular eye shade.” Nat New Biol 236(64):88-90 Details


    BARLOW HB (1971), “ Foundations of cyclopean perception by Bela Julesz, ” Vision Research 14: 221.

    Barlow HB, Levick WR, Yoon M (1971), “Responses to single quanta of light in retinal ganglion cells of the cat.” Vision Res Suppl 3:87-101 PDF Details

    Barlow HB, Pettigrew JD (1971), “Lack of specificity of neurones in the visual cortex of young kittens.” J Physiol 218 Suppl:98P-100P Details


    Barlow HB (1970), “Definition of intelligence.” Nature 228(5275):1008 Details

    Barlow HB (1970), “Sensitivity and spontaneous activity in the cat's retina.” Nihon Seirigaku Zasshi 32(8):543-4 Details


    BARLOW HB (1969), “Stabilized retinal images” Rendiconti della Scuola Int. di Fisica "Enrico Fermi", XLIII Corso. Academic Press, pp 431-441.

    BARLOW HB, (1969), “Trigger features, adaptation and economy of impulses.” Information Processing in the Nervous System, M. Leibovic (Ed.), Springer-Verlag: New York, pp 209-226.

    BARLOW HB, LEVICK WR (1969), “Coding of light intensity by the cat retina. ” Rendiconti della Scoula Int. di Fisica "Enrico Fermi", XLIII Corso. Academic Press, pp 385-96

    Barlow HB (1969), “Scaling and refractoriness in pulse trains.” J Opt Soc Am 59(11):1500 Details

    Barlow HB (1969), “Pattern recognition and the responses of sensory neurons.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 156(2):872-81 Details

    Barlow HB, Levick WR (1969), “Changes in the maintained discharge with adaptation level in the cat retina.” J Physiol 202(3):699-718 PDF Details

    Barlow HB, Levick WR (1969), “Three factors limiting the reliable detection of light by retinal ganglion cells of the cat.” J Physiol 200(1):1-24 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB, LEVICK WR,. (1968), “ The Purkinje Shift in the Cat retina” J.Physiol.. 196: 2P

    LEVICK WR, BARLOW HB (1968), “Luminance signals from cat retinal ganglion cells” The Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 46:11.


    BARLOW HB (1967), “ Organized forgetting: A disorganized critique of the distinctions among various types of memory” The Organization of Recall, Proceedings of the Second Conference (1964) of Learning, Remembering, and Forgettting. D.P. Kimble (Ed), N.Y. Acad. Sci. New York. pp 342-349. PDF

    Barlow HB, Andrews DP (1967), “Sensitivity of receptors and receptor "pools".” J Opt Soc Am 57(6):837-8 Details

    Barlow HB, Blakemore C, Pettigrew JD (1967), “The neural mechanism of binocular depth discrimination.” J Physiol 193(2):327-42 PDF Details

    Oyster CW, Barlow HB (1967), “Direction-selective units in rabbit retina: distribution of preferred directions.” Science 155(3764):841-2 PDF Details


    Barlow HB, Levick WR, Westheimer G (1966), “Computer-plotted receptive fields.” Science 154(3751):920 PDF Details

    Teller DY, Andrews DP, Barlow HB (1966), “Local adaptation in stabilized vision.” Vision Res 6(12):701-5 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1965), “VISUAL RESOLUTION AND THE DIFFRACTION LIMIT.” Science 149(3683):553-5 PDF Details

    Barlow HB (1965), “Optic nerve impulses and Weber's law.” Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 30:539-46 Details

    Barlow HB, Levick WR (1965), “The mechanism of directionally selective units in rabbit's retina.” J Physiol 178(3):477-504 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1964), “ Neural and photochemical adaptation in the retina.” Acta Psychol. 23: 115-116.

    BARLOW HB, (1964), “ The physical limits of visual discrimination.” Photophysiology, A.C. Giese (Ed.), Academic Press, Vol. 2, pp. 163-202.

    Barlow HB (1964), “Dark-adaptation: a new hypothesis.” Vision Res 4(1):47-58 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB, SPARROCK JM (1964), “THE ROLE OF AFTERIMAGES IN DARK ADAPTATION.” Science 144(3624):1309-14 PDF Details

    LEVICK WR, BARLOW HB,HILL.RM (1964), “Retinal mechanism for the perception of movement in rabbits.” Symposium sponsored by Visual Sciences Study Section, N.I.H. 97-105.


    BARLOW HB, LEVICK WR (1963), “Are bipolar cells directionally selective?” J. Physiol.. 170:54-55P

    BARLOW HB. (1963), “Slippage of contact lenses and other artifacts in relation to fading and regeneration of supposedly stable retinal image.” Q. J. Exp. Psychology 15:36-51.




    BARLOW HB, HILL RM (1963), “Selective sensitivity to direction of movement in ganglion cells of the rabbit retina.” Science 139(3553):412-4 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB, (1962), “ The brain as a Predictor.” Cambridge Opinion 27. R. Freedman (Ed.), p. 18.

    Barlow HB (1962), “Measurements of the quantum efficiency of discrimination in human scotopic vision.” J Physiol 160(1):169-88 PDF Details

    BARLOW HB (1962), “A method of determining the over-all quantum efficiency of visual discriminations.” J Physiol 160:155-68 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1961), “The coding of sensory messages” Current Problems in Animal Behaviour, Thorpe and Zangwill (Eds), CH13, PP330-360 Cambridge University Press,CAMBRIDGE UK.

    BARLOW HB (1961), “ Three points about lateral inhibition” Sensory Communication, W. Rosenblith (Ed.), M.I.T. Press, pp. 782-790.

    BARLOW HB (1961), “Possible principles underlying the transformations of sensory messages” Sensory Communication, Ed W.Rosenblith Ch13 , pp. 217-234 .M.I.T. Press,Cambridge,Mass. PDF

    BARLOW HB (1961), “Der Informationswert verschiedener Reaktionstypen der Neurone des visuellen systems; Gruppendiskussion. Initial Remarks.” The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, R. Jung & H. Kornhuber (Eds), Springer-Verlag: Berlin, pp. 375-376.


    BARLOW HB (1959), “Sensory mechanisms, the reduction of redundancy, and intelligence. ” NPL Symposium on the Mechanization of Thought Process. No. 10, pp 535-539, H.M. Stationery Office, London.

    BARLOW HB (1959), “ Refractory compartments and the quantum efficiency of rods” J. Physiol. 148:36-37P PDF

    BARLOW HB, DONALDSON PE, . (1959), “Recoding device” NPL Symposium on the Mechanization of Thought Process. H.M. Stationery Office, London, pp. 556, 1959


    BARLOW HB (1958), “ Intrinsic noise of cones” NPL Symposium on Visual Problems of Colour. pp. 615-639. H.M. Stationery Office, London PDF

    BARLOW HB (1958), “Temporal and spatial summation in human vision at different background intensities.” J Physiol 141(2):337-50 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1957), “Increment thresholds at low intensities considered as signal/noise discriminations.” J Physiol 136(3):469-88 PDF Details

    BARLOW HB (1957), “Purkinje shift and retinal noise.” Nature 179(4553):255-6 PDF Details

    BARLOW HB, FITZHUGH R, KUFFLER SW (1957), “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat's retina during dark adaptation.” J Physiol 137(3):338-54 PDF Details

    BARLOW HB, FITZHUGH R, KUFFLER SW (1957), “Dark adaptation, absolute threshold and Purkinje shift in single units of the cat's retina.” J Physiol 137(3):327-37 PDF Details

    BULMER MG, HOWARTH CI, CANE V, GREGORY RL, BARLOW HB (1957), “Noise and the visual threshold.” Nature 180(4599):1403-5 PDF Details

    KUFFLER SW, FITZHUGH R, BARLOW HB (1957), “Maintained activity in the cat's retina in light and darkness.” J Gen Physiol 40(5):683-702 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1956), “Retinal noise and absolute threshold.” J Opt Soc Am 46(8):634-9 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB, FITZHUGH R, KUFFLER SW (1954), “Resting discharge and dark adaptation in the cat.” J Physiol 125(1):28-9P Details


    BARLOW HB (1953), “Summation and inhibition in the frog's retina.” J Physiol 119(1):69-88 PDF Details

    BARLOW HB (1953), “Action potentials from the frog's retina.” J Physiol 119(1):58-68 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1952), “ The size of ommatidia in apposition eyes” Journal of. Experimental Biology 29:667-674 PDF

    BARLOW HB (1952), “Eye movements during fixation.” J Physiol 116(3):290-306 PDF Details


    BARLOW HB (1950), “ The receptive fields of ganglion cells in the frog retina. ” XVIII Int. Physiol...XVIII Int. Physiol. Congress, Copenhagen. pp. 88-89.


    BARLOW HB, KOHN HI, WALSH EG (1947), “The effect of dark adaptation and of light upon the electric threshold of the human eye.” Am J Physiol 148(2):376-81 PDF Details

    BARLOW HB, KOHN HI, WALSH EG (1947), “Visual sensations aroused by magnetic fields.” Am J Physiol 148(2):372-5 PDF Details


    RUSHTON WA, BARLOW HB. (1943), “ Single-fibre response from an intact animaL” Nature 152:597 PDF