Audrey Low

University position

PhD student


Department of Psychiatry

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Research Theme

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience


My research focuses on understanding the role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in dementia and cognitive impairment, with the help of multimodal neuroimaging techniques and clinical data.

My current research examines cerebral small vessel disease in relation to vascular risk factors and pathological markers of dementia (e.g., amyloid, tau, neuroinflammation) to understand how various pathologies interact in their contribution to neurodegeneration and clinical outcomes.

My PhD is funded by the Fitzwilliam Lee Kuan Yew PhD Scholarship from the University of Cambridge, and my supervisors are Professor John O’Brien and Professor Hugh Markus.

Research Focus




Cerebrovascular disease

Risk factors


Clinical conditions

Alzheimer's disease

Cerebrovascular disorders

Cognitive impairment



Cross-sectional and cohort studies

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Neuropsychological testing

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)


No collaborators listed

Associated News Items



    Low A, Prats-Sedano, MA, Stupart O, Stefaniak JD, McKiernan E, Carter S, Dounavi ME, Mak E, Su L, Muniz-Terrera G, Ritchie K, Ritchie CW, Markus HS, O'Brien JT (2022), “CAIDE dementia risk score relates to severity and progression of cerebral small vessel disease in healthy midlife adults: the PREVENT-Dementia study.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry


    Brown R, Low A, Markus HS (2021), “Rate of, and risk factors for, white matter hyperintensity growth: a systematic review and meta-analysis with implications for clinical trial design” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

    Dounavi ME, Low A, McKiernan E, Mak E, Muniz-Terrera G, Ritchie K, Ritchie CW, Su L, O'Brien JT (2021), “Evidence of cerebral hemodynamic dysregulation in middle-aged APOE ε4 carriers: the PREVENT-Dementia study” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab

    Low A, Su L, Stefaniak JD, Mak E, Dounavi ME, Muniz-Terrera G, Ritchie K, Ritchie CW, Markus HS, O'Brien JT (2021), “Inherited risk of dementia and the progression of cerebral small vessel disease and inflammatory markers in cognitively healthy midlife adults: the PREVENT-Dementia study” Neurobiol Aging 98: 124-133

    Mak E, Dounavi M, Low A, Carter SF, McKiernan E, Williams GB, Jones PS, Carriere I, Muniz-Terrera G, Ritchie K, Ritchie C, Su L, O’Brien JT (2021), “Proximity to dementia onset and multi-modal neuroimaging changes: The PREVENT-Dementia Study” NeuroImage 229:117749

    Mak E, Holland N, Jones PS, Savulich G, Low A, Malpetti M, Kaalund SS, Passamonti L, Rittman T, Romero-Garcia R, Manavaki R, Williams GB, Hong YT, Fryer TD, Aigbirhio FI, O’Brien JT, Rowe JB (2021), “In vivo coupling of dendritic complexity with presynaptic density in primary tauopathies” Neurobiol Aging 101: 187–198

    Vipin A, Wong BYX, Kumar D, Low A, Ng KP, Kandiah N (2021), “Association between white matter hyperintensity load and grey matter atrophy in mild cognitive impairment is not unidirectional” Aging (Albany NY) 13(8): 10973–10988


    Koh W, Lim L, Low A, Wong B, Lim L, Silva E, Ng KP, Kandiah N (2020), “Development and validation of a brief visual based cognitive screening tool for dementia: the Visual Cognitive Assessment Test short-form (VCAT-S)” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 91(10):1122-1123

    Low A, Mak E, Malpetti M, Passamonti L, Nicastro N, Stefaniak JD, Savulich G, Chouliaras L, Su L, Rowe JB, Markus HS, O’Brien JT (2020), “In vivo neuroinflammation and cerebral small vessel disease in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 92:45-52

    Low A, Mak E, Rowe JB, Markus HS, O’Brien JT. (2020), “Inflammation and cerebral small vessel disease: A systematic review” Ageing Res Rev 53:100916

    Low A, Mak E, Stefaniak JD, Malpetti M, Nicastro N, Markus HS, Rowe JB, O’Brien JT. (2020), “Peak Width of Skeletonized Mean Diffusivity as a Marker of Diffuse Cerebrovascular Damage” Front Neurosci 14:238

    Wong FCC, Yatawara C, Low A, Foo H, Wong BYX, Lim L, Wang B, Kumar D, Ng KP, Kandiah N (2020), “Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Influences Hippocampal Subfield Atrophy in Mild Cognitive Impairment” Transl Stroke Res 1:9


    Low A, Foo H, Yong T, Tan LCS, Kandiah N (2019), “Hippocampal Subfield Atrophy of CA1 and Subicular Structures Predict Progression to Dementia in Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 90(6): 681-687

    Low A, Lim L, Lim L, Wong B, Silva E, Ng KP, Kandiah N (2019), “Construct Validity of the Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT): A Cross-Cultural Language-Neutral Cognitive Screening Tool” Int Psychogeriatr 21:1-9

    Low A, Mak E, Malpetti M, Chouliaras L, Nicastro N, Su L, Holland N, Rittman T, Vázquez Rodríguez P, Passamonti L, Bevan-Jones WR, Jones PS, Rowe JB, O'Brien JT (2019), “Asymmetrical Atrophy of Thalamic Subnuclei in Alzheimer’s Disease and Amyloid-Positive Mild Cognitive Impairment is Associated with Key Clinical Features” Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 11: 690-699

    Low A, Ng KP, Chander RJ, Wong B, Kandiah N. (2019), “Association of Asymmetrical Distribution of White Matter Hyperintensities and Apolipoprotein E4 on Cognitive Outcomes in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia” J Alzheimers Dis 70(3): 953-964

    Low A, Yong T, Chandler RJ, Ng KP, Kandiah N (2019), “Predictors and Patterns of Cognitive Decline Differ between Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD-MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD-MCI)” J Alzheimers Parkinsonism Dement 3(1): 27