Amber Ruigrok

Amber Ruigrok

University position

Research Associate


Department of Psychiatry


Autism Research Centre


Research Themes

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience

Developmental Neuroscience


Amber Ruigrok is a researcher at the Autism Research Centre, Dept of Psychiatry. Amber's PhD research investigated how testosterone and variation in the androgen receptor may be involved in the development of sex differences in human brain white matter in the typically developing population. Based on these findings and previous work on sex differences in autism brain structure, her current research mostly focusses on sex differences in brain structure in typically developing individuals and individuals with autism. She is also very interested in network organisation and how this changes across development, particularly how puberty influences brain maturation.

Research Focus


sex differences

white matter

steroid hormones



Clinical conditions


Hormonal disorders


Cross-sectional and cohort studies

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Neuropsychological testing



Bonnie Auyeung

Simon Baron-Cohen

Meng-Chuan Lai

Michael Lombardo

Rafael Romero-Garcia

John Suckling


Jay Giedd Web:

Armin Raznahan Web:

Associated News Items



    Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Suckling J, Ruigrok AN, Chakrabarti B, Ecker C, Deoni SC, Craig MC, Murphy DG, Bullmore ET, MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen S (2013), “Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism.” Brain 136(Pt 9):2799-815 Details

    Ruigrok AN, Salimi-Khorshidi G, Lai MC, Baron-Cohen S, Lombardo MV, Tait RJ, Suckling J (2013), “A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev Details


    Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Chakrabarti B, Ecker C, Sadek SA, Wheelwright SJ, Murphy DG, Suckling J, Bullmore ET, MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen S (2012), “Individual differences in brain structure underpin empathizing-systemizing cognitive styles in male adults.” Neuroimage 61(4):1347-54 Details

    Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Ruigrok AN, Chakrabarti B, Wheelwright SJ, Auyeung B, Allison C, MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen S (2012), “Cognition in males and females with autism: similarities and differences.” PLoS One 7(10):e47198 Details


    Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Pasco G, Ruigrok AN, Wheelwright SJ, Sadek SA, Chakrabarti B, MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen S (2011), “A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.” PLoS One 6(6):e20835 Details


    Klumpers F, Raemaekers MA, Ruigrok AN, Hermans EJ, Kenemans JL, Baas JM (2010), “Prefrontal mechanisms of fear reduction after threat offset.” Biol Psychiatry 68(11):1031-8 Details