Professor Wolfram Schultz FRS

Interests

Our group is interested to relate the mechanics of brain activity to measurable behaviour. We combine neurophysiological, imaging and behavioural techniques to investigate the neural correlates of goal-directed. We are interested in outcome value (in particular reward) signals in specific brain structures such as dopamine neurons, striatum, frontal cortex and amygdala. These rapid, global, evaluative and supervising neural signals may play a role in decision-making and choice behaviour. In investigating these outcome-coding mechanisms we try to establish a common biological basis for animal learning theory, microeconomic utility and game theories, and behavioural ecology. The larger background is to consider the brain in its capacity for processing reward information as an essential organ for assuring the fitness for survival in an evolutionary framework.

Rewards
Rewards
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Research Focus

Keywords

Reward

Value

Uncertainty

Action

neural circuit

Clinical conditions

Addiction

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Huntington's disease

Learning disbilities

Movement disorders

Obsessive compulsive disorder

Parkinson's disease

Schizophrenia

Equipment

Behavioural analysis

Electrophysiological recording techniques

Collaborators

Cambridge

Anthony Dickinson

Paul Fletcher

Christopher Harris

United Kingdom

Ray Dolan Web: http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/Dolan/

International

Peter Bossaerts Web: http://www.hss.caltech.edu/~pbs/

Masamichi Sakagami Web: http://www.tamagawa.ac.jp/sisetu/...

Masataka Watanabe Web: http://tmin.ac.jp/english...

Associated News Items


Publications

2021

Bujold PM, Ferrari-Toniolo S, Schultz W. (2021), “Adaptation of utility functions to reward distribution in rhesus monkeys. ” Cognition 214: 104764, 2021.

Chi U Seak* L, Volkmann* K, Pastor-Bernier A, Grabenhorst F, Schultz W. (2021), “Single-dimensional human brain signals for two-dimensional economic choice options. ” Chi U Seak* L, Volkmann* K, Pastor-Bernier A, Grabenhorst F, Schultz W. Single-dimensional human brain signals for two-dimensional economic choice oJ Neurosci 41: 3000-3013, 2021

Ferrari-Toniolo S, Bujold P, Schultz W. (2021), “Non-human primates satisfy utility maximization in compliance with the continuity axiom of Expected Utility Theory. ” J Neurosci 41: 2964-2979, 2021

Grabenhorst F, Schultz W. (2021), “Functions of primate amygdala neurons in economic decisions and social decision simulation. ” Behav Brain Res 409: 113318, 2021.

Pastor-Bernier A, Stasiak A, Schultz W. (2021), “Reward-specific satiety affects subjective value signals in orbitofrontal cortex during multi-component economic choice. ” Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 118: e2022650118, 2021.

Schultz W, Stauffer WR, Lak A, Pastor-Bernier A. (2021), “Smarter than humans: rationality reflected in primate neuronal reward signals. ” Curr Op Behav Sci 41: 51-56, 2021

2020

Ferrari-Toniolo S, Bujold P, Schultz W (2020), “Compliance with the continuity axiom of Expected Utility Theory supports utility maximization in monkeys” BioRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.18.953950

Grabenhorst F, Salzman CD, Schultz W. (2020), “The role of the primate amygdala in reward and decision-making. ” In: The Cognitive Neurosciences (Eds. Poeppel D, Mangun GR, Gazzaniga MS) pp 631-639, 2020.

Pastor-Bernier A, Volkmann K, Stasiak A, Grabenhorst F, Schultz W. (2020), “Experimentally revealed stochastic preferences for multicomponent choice options. ” J exp Psychol: Animal Learn Cognition 46: 367-384, 2020

Stauffer WR, Schultz W. (2020), “Dopamine prediction error response reflect economic utility. ” In: The Cognitive Neurosciences (Eds. Poeppel D, Mangun GR, Gazzaniga MS) pp 587-595, 2020.

Tremblay S, ... Schultz W, ... Stauffer WR, ... Wurtz RH, ... Shenoy KV, DiCarlo JJ, Platt ML. (2020), “An Open Resource for Non-human Primate Optogenetics. ” Neuron 108: 1075-1090, 2020.

Vestergaard MD, Schultz W. (2020), “Retrospective valuation of experienced outcome encoded in distinct reward representations in the anterior insula and amygdala. ” J Neurosci 40: 8938-8950, 2020.

2019

Al-Mohammad A, Schultz W (2019), “Let a monkey do your bidding: Reward valuation in an auction-like mechanism” BioRxiv http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2019.12.11.872564

Ferrari-Toniolo S, Bujold P, Schultz W (2019), “Probability distortion depends on choice sequence in rhesus monkeys” J Neurosci 39: 2915-2929

Grabenhorst F, Báez-Mendoza R, Genest W, Deco G, Schultz W (2019), “Primate amygdala neurons simulate decision processes of social partners” Cell

Grabenhorst* F, Tsutsui* KI, Kobayashi S, Schultz W (2019), “Primate prefrontal neurons signal economic risk derived from the statistics of recent reward experience” eLife 8: e44838

Pastor-Bernier A, Stasiak A, Schultz W (2019), “Orbitofrontal signals for two-component choice options comply with indifference curves of Revealed Preference Theory” Nat Comm 10: 4885

Pastor-Bernier A, Volkmann K, Stasiak A, Grabenhorst F, Schultz W (2019), “Single-dimensional human revealed stochastic preferences for multi-dimensional economic choice options” BioRxiv http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/832881

Schultz W (2019), “Recent advances in understanding the role of phasic dopamine activity” F1000

2017

Brzosko Z, Zannone S, Schultz W, Clopath C, Paulsen O (2017), “Sequential neuromodulation of Hebbian plasticity offers mechanism for effective reward-based navigation” eLife 6:e27756

Diederen KMJ, Ziauddeen H, Vestergaard M, Spencer T, Schultz W, Fletcher P (2017), “Dopamine modulates adaptive prediction error coding in the human midbrain and striatum” J Neurosci 37: 1708-1720

Pastor-Bernier A, Plott CR, Schultz W (2017), “Monkeys choose as if maximizing utility compatible with basic principles of revealed preference theory” PNAS E114: 1766-E1775

Schultz W, Stauffer WR, Lak A (2017), “The phasic dopamine signal maturing: from reward via behavioural activation to formal economic utility” Curr Op Neurobiol 43: 139-148

2016

Báez-Mendoza R, Schultz W (2016), “Performance error-related activity in monkey striatum during social interactions” Sci Reports 6: 37199

Báez-Mendoza R, van Coeverden C, Schultz W (2016), “A neuronal reward inequity signal in primate striatum” J Neurophysiol 115: 68-79

Diederen K, Spencer T, Vestergaard MD, Fletcher P, Schultz W (2016), “Adaptive prediction error coding in the human midbrain and striatum facilitates behavioral adaptation and learning efficiency” Neuron 90: 1127-1138

Genest W, Stauffer WR, Schultz W (2016), “Utility functions predict variance and skewness risk preferences in monkeys” Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 113: 8402-8407

Grabenhorst* F, Hernadi* I, Schultz W (2016), “Primate amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of self-defined economic choice sequences” eLife 5: e18731

Lak A, Stauffer WR, Schultz W (2016), “Dopamine neurons learn relative chosen value from probabilistic rewards” eLife 5: e18044

Schultz W (2016), “Dopamine reward prediction error signalling: a two-component response” Nat Rev Neurosci 17: 183-195

Stauffer WR, Lak A, Yang A, Borel M, Paulsen O, Boyden E, Schultz W (2016), “Dopamine neuron-specific optogenetic stimulation in Rhesus macaques” Cell 166: 1564-1571

Tsutsui* KI, Grabenhorst* F, Kobayashi S, Schultz W (2016), “A dynamic code for economic object valuation in prefrontal cortex neurons” Nat Comm 7: 12554

Zangemeister* L, Grabenhorst* F, Schultz W (2016), “Neural basis for economic saving strategies in human amygdala-prefrontal reward circuits” Curr Biol 26: 3004-3013

2015

Brzosko Z, Schultz W, Paulsen O (2015), “Retroactive modulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity by dopamine” eLife 4: e09685

Diederen KMJ, Schultz W (2015), “Scaling prediction errors to reward variability benefits error-driven learning in humans” J Neurophysiol 114: 1628-1640

Hernadi* I, Grabenhorst* F, Schultz W (2015), “Planning activity for internally generated reward goals in monkey amygdala neurons” Nat Neurosci 18

Schultz W (2015), “Neuronal reward and decision signals: from theories to data” Physiol Rev 95: 853-951

Schultz W, Carelli RM, Wightman RM (2015), “Phasic dopamine signals: from subjective reward value to formal economic utility” Curr Op Behav Sci 5: 147-154

Stauffer WR, Lak A, Bossaerts P, Schultz W (2015), “Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys” J Neurosci 35: 3146-3154

Vestergaard MD, Schultz W (2015), “Choice mechanisms for past, temporally extended outcomes” Proc Roy Soc B 282: 20141766, 1810

2014

Bermudez MA, Schultz W (2014), “Timing in reward and decision processes.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 369(1637):20120468 Details

Medic N, Ziauddeen H, Vestergaard MD, Henning E, Schultz W, Farooqi IS, Fletcher PC (2014), “Dopamine modulates the neural representation of subjective value of food in hungry subjects” J Neurosci 34: 16877-16889

O'Neill M, Schultz W (2014), “Economic risk coding by single neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex.” J Physiol Paris Details

Stauffer WR, Lak A, Schultz W (2014), “Dopamine reward prediction error responses reflect marginal utility” Curr Biol 2491-2500

2013

Báez-Mendoza R, Harris C, Schultz W. (2013), “Activity of striatal neurons reflects social action and own reward. ” Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 110: 16634-16639, 2013.

Báez-Mendoza R, Schultz W (2013), “The role of the striatum in social behavior.” Front Neurosci 7:233 Details

d'Acremont M, Schultz W, Bossaerts P. (2013), “The human brain encodes event frequencies while forming subjective beliefs. ” J Neurosci 33: 10887-10897, 2013.

O'Neill, M, Schultz W. (2013), “Risk prediction error coding in orbitofrontal neurons. ” J Neurosci 33: 15810-15814, 2013.

Schultz W. (2013), “Updating dopamine reward signals. ” Curr Op Neurobiol 23: 229-238, 2013.

2012

Ariansen JL, Heien ML, Hermans A, Phillips PE, Hernadi I, Bermudez MA, Schultz W, Wightman RM (2012), “Monitoring extracellular pH, oxygen, and dopamine during reward delivery in the striatum of primates.” Front Behav Neurosci 6:36 Details

Bermudez MA, Göbel C, Schultz W. (2012), “Sensitivity to temporal reward structure in amygdala neurons. ” Curr Biol 22: 1839-1844, 2012.

Grabenhorst* F, Hernadi* I, Schultz W. (2012), “ Prediction of economic choice by primate amygdala neurons. ” Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 109: 18950-18955, 2012.

Miyapuram KP, Tobler PN, Gregorios-Pippas L, Schultz W (2012), “BOLD responses in reward regions to hypothetical and imaginary monetary rewards.” Neuroimage 59(2):1692-9 Details

Schultz W (2012), “Risky dopamine.” Biol Psychiatry 71(3):180-1 Details

2011

Hare TA, Schultz W, Camerer CF, O'Doherty JP, Rangel A. (2011), “Transformation of stimulus value signals into motor commands during simple choice. ” Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 108: 18120-18125, 2011.

Miyapuram KP, Tobler PN, Gregorios-Pippas, L, Schultz W. (2011), “BOLD responses in reward regions to hypothetical and imaginary monetary rewards.” NeuroImage 59: 1692-1699, 2011.

Schultz W (2011), “Potential vulnerabilities of neuronal reward, risk, and decision mechanisms to addictive drugs.” Neuron 69(4):603-17 Details

Schultz W (2011), “Potential vulnerabilities of neuronal reward, risk, and decision mechanisms to addictive drugs” Neuron 69: 603-617

Schultz W, O'Neill M, Tobler PN, Kobayashi S (2011), “Neuronal signals for reward risk in frontal cortex.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 1239:109-17 Details

2010

Bermudez MA, Schultz W. (2010), “Reward magnitude coding in primate amygdala neurons.” J Neurophysiol 104: 3424-3432, 2010.

Bermudez MA, Schultz W. (2010), “Responses of amygdala neurons to positive reward predicting stimuli depend on background reward (contingency) rather than stimulus-reward pairing (contiguity).” J Neurophysiol 103: 1158-1170, 2010.

Burke CJ, Tobler PN, Baddeley M, Schultz W. (2010), “Neuronal mechanisms of observational learning. ” Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 107, 14431-14436, 2010.

Burke CJ, Tobler PN, Schultz W, Baddeley M (2010), “Striatal BOLD Response Reflects the Impact of Herd Information on Financial Decisions.” Front Hum Neurosci 4:48 Details

Kobayashi S, Pinto de Carvalho O, Schultz W (2010), “Adaptation of reward sensitivity in orbitofrontal neurons” J Neurosci 30: 534-544

Kobayashi S, Pinto de Carvalho O, Schultz W (2010), “Adaptation of reward sensitivity in orbitofrontal neurons.” J Neurosci 30(2):534-44 Details

Kobayashi S, Schultz W, Sakagami M (2010), “Operant conditioning of primate prefrontal neurons.” J Neurophysiol 103(4):1843-55 Details

Nomoto K, Schultz W, Watanabe T, Sakagami M (2010), “Temporally extended dopamine responses to perceptually demanding reward-predictive stimuli.” J Neurosci 30(32):10692-702 Details

O'Neill M, Schultz W (2010), “Coding of reward risk by orbitofrontal neurons is mostly distinct from coding of reward value.” Neuron 68(4):789-800 Details

O'Neill M, Schultz W (2010), “Coding of reward risk distinct from reward value by orbitofrontal neurons” Neuron 68: 789-800

Schultz W (2010), “Subjective neuronal coding of reward: temporal value discounting and risk.” Eur J Neurosci 31(12):2124-35 Details

Schultz W (2010), “Dopamine signals for reward value and risk: basic and recent data.” Behav Brain Funct 6:24 Details

Schultz W. (2010), “Subjective neuronal coding of reward: temporal value discounting and risk. ” Eur J Neurosci 31: 2124–2135, 2010.

2009

Christopoulos GI, Tobler PN, Bossaerts P, Dolan RJ, Schultz W (2009), “Neural correlates of value, risk, and risk aversion contributing to decision making under risk.” J Neurosci 29(40):12574-83 Details

Gregorios-Pippas L, Tobler PN, Schultz W. (2009), “Short term temporal discounting of reward value in human ventral striatum. ” J Neurophysiol 101: 1507-1523, 2009.

Tobler PN, Christopoulos GI, O'Doherty JP, Dolan RJ, Schultz W. (2009), “Risk-dependent reward value signal in human prefrontal cortex. ” Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 106: 7185-7190, 2009.

2008

Fiorillo CD, Newsome WT, Schultz W (2008), “The temporal precision of reward prediction in dopamine neurons.” Nat Neurosci Details

Hare TA, O'Doherty J, Camerer CF, Schultz W, Rangel A (2008), “Dissociating the role of the orbitofrontal cortex and the striatum in the computation of goal values and prediction errors.” J Neurosci 28(22):5623-30 Details

Kobayashi S, Schultz W (2008), “Influence of reward delays on responses of dopamine neurons” J Neurosci 28: 7837-7846

Kobayashi S, Schultz W (2008), “Influence of reward delays on responses of dopamine neurons.” J Neurosci 28(31):7837-46 Details

2007

Schultz W. (2007), “Multiple dopamine functions at different time courses. ” Ann Rev Neurosci 30: 259-288, 2007.

Schultz W. (2007), “Behavioral dopamine signals. ” Trends Neurosci 30: 203-210, 2007.

Tobler PN, Fletcher PC, Bullmore ET, Schultz W (2007), “Learning-related human brain activations reflecting individual finances.” Neuron 54(1):167-75 Details

Tobler PN, O’Doherty JP. Dolan R, Schultz W. (2007), “Reward value coding distinct from risk attitude-related uncertainty coding in human reward systems. ” J Neurophysiol 97: 1621-1632, 2007.

2006

Blatter K, Schultz W (2006), “Rewarding properties of visual stimuli.” Exp Brain Res 168(4):541-6 Details

Kobayashi S, Nomoto K, Watanabe M, Hikosaka O, Schultz W, Sakagami M (2006), “Influences of rewarding and aversive outcomes on activity in macaque lateral prefrontal cortex.” Neuron 51(6):861-70 Details

Schultz W (2006), “Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward” Ann Rev Psychol 57:87-115

Schultz W (2006), “Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward.” Annu Rev Psychol 57:87-115 Details

Tobler PN, O’Doherty JP, Dolan, R, Schultz W. (2006), “Human neural learning depends on reward prediction errors in the blocking paradigm. ” J Neurophysiol 95: 301-310, 2006.

2005

Cromwell HC, Hassani OK, Schultz W (2005), “Relative reward processing in primate striatum.” Exp Brain Res 162(4):520-5 Details

Fiorillo CD, Tobler PN, Schultz W (2005), “Evidence that the delay-period activity of dopamine neurons corresponds to reward uncertainty rather than backpropagating TD errors.” Behav Brain Funct 1(1):7 Details

2004

Schultz W (2004), “Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 14(2):139-47 Details

2003

Cromwell HC, Schultz W. (2003), “Effects of expectations for different reward magnitudes on neuronal activity in primate striatum. ” J. Neurophysiol. 89: 2823-2838, 2003.

Fiorillo CD, Tobler PN, Schultz W (2003), “Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons” Science 299:1898-1902

Fiorillo CD, Tobler PN, Schultz W (2003), “Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons.” Science 299(5614):1898-902 Details

Martin-Soelch C, Missimer J, Leenders KL, Schultz W (2003), “Neural activity related to the processing of increasing monetary reward in smokers and nonsmokers.” Eur J Neurosci 18(3):680-8 Details

Schultz W, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR (2003), “Changes in behavior-related neuronal activity in the striatum during learning.” Trends Neurosci 26(6):321-8 Details

Tobler PN, Dickinson A, Schultz W. (2003), “Coding of predicted reward omission by dopamine neurons in a conditioned inhibition paradigm. ” J Neurosci 23: 10402-10410, 2003.

2002

Schultz W. (2002), “Getting formal with dopamine and reward. ” Neuron 36: 241-263, 2002.

2001

Hassani OK, Cromwell HC, Schultz W. (2001), “Influence of expectation of different rewards on behavior-related neuronal activity in the striatum.” J Neurophysiol 85: 2477-2489, 2001.

Martin-Soelch C, Chevalley AF, Künig G, Missimer J, Magyar S, Mino A, Schultz W, Leenders KL (2001), “Changes in reward-induced brain activation in opiate addicts.” Eur J Neurosci 14(8):1360-8 Details

Martin-Soelch C, Leenders KL, Chevalley AF, Missimer J, Künig G, Magyar S, Mino A, Schultz W (2001), “Reward mechanisms in the brain and their role in dependence: evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies.” Brain Res Brain Res Rev 36(2-3):139-49 Details

Martin-Sölch C, Magyar S, Künig G, Missimer J, Schultz W, Leenders KL (2001), “Changes in brain activation associated with reward processing in smokers and nonsmokers. A positron emission tomography study.” Exp Brain Res 139(3):278-86 Details

Schultz W (2001), “Reward signaling by dopamine neurons.” Neuroscientist 7(4):293-302 Details

Suri R, Schultz, W. (2001), “Temporal difference model reproduces anticipatory neural activity. ” Neur Comput 13: 841-862, 2001.

Waelti P, Dickinson A, Schultz, W. (2001), “Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory. ” Nature 412: 43-48, 2001.

Watanabe M, Cromwell HC, Tremblay L, Hollerman, JR, Hikosaka K, Schultz W. (2001), “Behavioral reactions reflecting differential reward expectations in monkeys. ” Exp Brain Res 140: 511-518, 2001.

2000

Cavada C, Schultz W (2000), “The mysterious orbitofrontal cortex. foreword” Cereb Cortex 10(3):205 Details

Hollerman JR, Tremblay L, Schultz W (2000), “Involvement of basal ganglia and orbitofrontal cortex in goal-directed behavior.” Prog Brain Res 126:193-215 Details

Künig G, Leenders KL, Martin-Sölch C, Missimer J, Magyar S, Schultz W (2000), “Reduced reward processing in the brains of Parkinsonian patients.” Neuroreport 11(17):3681-7 Details

Schultz W, Dickinson A. (2000), “Neuronal coding of prediction errors.” Ann Rev Neurosci 23: 473-500, 2000.

Schultz W. (2000), “Multiple reward systems in the brain. ” Nat Rev Neurosci 1: 199-207, 2000.

Tremblay L, Schultz W. (2000), “Modifications of reward expectation-related neuronal activity during learning in primate orbitofrontal cortex.” J Neurophysiol 83: 1877-1885, 2000.

Tremblay L, Schultz W. (2000), “Reward-related neuronal activity during go-nogo task performance in primate orbitofrontal cortex. ” J Neurophysiol 83: 1864-1876, 2000.

1999

Contreras-Vidal JL, Schultz W (1999), “A predictive reinforcement model of dopamine neurons for learning approach behavior.” J Comput Neurosci 6(3):191-214 Details

Schultz W (1999), “The Reward Signal of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons.” News Physiol Sci 14:249-255 Details

Tremblay L, Schultz W. (1999), “Relative reward preference in primate orbitofrontal cortex. ” Nature 398: 704-708, 1999.

1998

Hollerman JR, Schultz W. (1998), “Dopamine neurons report an error in the temporal prediction of reward during learning. ” Nat Neurosci 1: 304-309, 1998.

Hollerman JR, Tremblay L, Schultz W. (1998), “Influence of reward expectation on behavior-related neuronal activity in primate striatum.” J Neurophysiol 80: 947-963, 1998.

Schultz W (1998), “The phasic reward signal of primate dopamine neurons.” Adv Pharmacol 42:686-90 Details

Schultz W, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR (1998), “Reward prediction in primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex.” Neuropharmacology 37(4-5):421-9 Details

Schultz W. (1998), “Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. ” J Neurophysiol 80: 1-27, 1998.

Suri RE, Schultz W (1998), “Learning of sequential movements by neural network model with dopamine-like reinforcement signal.” Exp Brain Res 121(3):350-4 Details

Tremblay L, Hollerman JR, Schultz W. (1998), “Modifications of reward expectation-related neuronal activity during learning in primate striatum. ” J Neurophysiol 80: 964-977, 1998.

1997

Schultz W (1997), “Dopamine neurons and their role in reward mechanisms.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 7(2):191-7 Details

Schultz W, Dayan P, Montague RR. (1997), “A neural substrate of prediction and reward. ” Science 275: 1593-1599, 1997.

Thut G, Schultz W, Roelcke U, Nienhusmeier M, Missimer J, Maguire RP, Leenders KL. (1997), “Monetary reward activates human prefrontal cortex. ” Neuroreport 8: 1225-1228, 1997.

1996

Mirenowicz J, Schultz W. (1996), “Preferential activation of midbrain dopamine neurons by appetitive rather than aversive stimuli. ” Nature 379: 449-451, 1996.

1994

Mirenowicz J, Schultz W. (1994), “Importance of unpredictability for reward responses in primate dopamine neurons.” J Neurophysiol 72: 1024-1027, 1994.

Schultz W (1994), “Behavior-related activity of primate dopamine neurons.” Rev Neurol (Paris) 150(8-9):634-9 Details

1993

Galbraith GC, Schultz W (1993), “Perceptual adaptation in the vestibulo-ocular system: EEG correlates of spatial and temporal rearrangement.” Percept Mot Skills 77(2):595-608 Details

Schultz W, Apicella P, Ljungberg T, Romo R, Scarnati E (1993), “Reward-related activity in the monkey striatum and substantia nigra.” Prog Brain Res 99:227-35 Details

Schultz W, Apicella P, Ljungberg T. (1993), “Responses of monkey dopamine neurons to reward and conditioned stimuli during successive steps of learning a delayed response task. ” J Neurosci 13: 900-913, 1993.

1992

Ljungberg T, Apicella P, Schultz W. (1992), “Responses of monkey dopamine neurons during learning of behavioral reactions.” J Neurophysiol 67: 145-163, 1992.

Romo R, Scarnati E. Schultz, W. (1992), “Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements: II. Movement-related activity in the anterior striatum. ” Exp Brain Res 91: 385-395, 1992.

Romo R, Schultz W. (1992), “Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements: III. Neuronal activity in the supplementary motor area. ” Exp Brain Res 91: 396-407, 1992.

Schultz W, Apicella P, Scarnati E, Ljungberg T. (1992), “Neuronal activity in monkey ventral striatum related to the expectation of reward. ” J Neurosci 12: 4595-4610, 1992.

Schultz W, Romo R. (1992), “Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements: I. Preparatory activity in the anterior striatum. ” Exp Brain Res 91: 363-384, 1992.

1991

Apicella P, Ljungberg T, Scarnati E, Schultz W. (1991), “Responses to reward in monkey dorsal and ventral striatum. ” Exp Brain Res 85: 491-500, 1991.

Apicella P, Scarnati E, Schultz W (1991), “Tonically discharging neurons of monkey striatum respond to preparatory and rewarding stimuli.” Exp Brain Res 84(3):672-5 Details

Ljungberg T, Apicella P, Schultz W (1991), “Responses of monkey midbrain dopamine neurons during delayed alternation performance.” Brain Res 567(2):337-41 Details

1990

Romo R, Schultz W. (1990), “Dopamine neurons of the monkey midbrain: Contingencies of responses to active touch during self-initiated arm movements. ” J Neurophysiol 63: 592-606, 1990.

Schultz W, Romo R. (1990), “Dopamine neurons of the monkey midbrain: Contingencies of responses to stimuli eliciting immediate behavioral reactions. ” J Neurophysiol 63: 607-624, 1990.

1989

Romo R, Schultz W (1989), “Somatosensory input to dopamine neurones of the monkey midbrain: responses to pain pinch under anaesthesia and to active touch in behavioural context.” Prog Brain Res 80:473-8; discussion 465-6 Details

Schultz W, Romo R, Scarnati E, Sundström E, Jonsson G, Studer A (1989), “Saccadic reaction times, eye-arm coordination and spontaneous eye movements in normal and MPTP-treated monkeys.” Exp Brain Res 78(2):253-67 Details

1988

Schultz W (1988), “MPTP-induced parkinsonism in monkeys: mechanism of action, selectivity and pathophysiology.” Gen Pharmacol 19(2):153-61 Details

Studer A, Sundström E, Jonsson G, Schultz W (1988), “Acute electrophysiological and neurochemical effects of administration of MPTP in mice.” Neuropharmacology 27(9):923-31 Details

1987

Schultz W, Romo R (1987), “Responses of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons to high-intensity somatosensory stimulation in the anesthetized monkey.” J Neurophysiol 57(1):201-17 Details

Studer A, Schultz W (1987), “The catecholamine uptake inhibitor nomifensine depresses impulse activity of dopamine neurons in mouse substantia nigra.” Neurosci Lett 80(2):207-12 Details

1986

Schultz W (1986), “Responses of midbrain dopamine neurons to behavioral trigger stimuli in the monkey.” J Neurophysiol 56(5):1439-61 Details

Schultz W (1986), “Activity of pars reticulata neurons of monkey substantia nigra in relation to motor, sensory, and complex events.” J Neurophysiol 55(4):660-77 Details

Schultz W, Scarnati E, Sundström E, Tsutsumi T, Jonsson G (1986), “The catecholamine uptake blocker nomifensine protects against MPTP-induced parkinsonism in monkeys.” Exp Brain Res 63(1):216-20 Details

Schultz W, Scarnati E, Sundström E, Tsutsumi T, Jonsson G (1986), ““The catecholamine uptake blocker nomifensine protects against MPTP-induced parkinsonism in monkeys.” ” Exp Brain Res 63(1):216-20

1985

Romo R, Schultz W (1985), “Prolonged changes in dopaminergic terminal excitability and short changes in dopaminergic neuron discharge rate after short peripheral stimulation in monkey.” Neurosci Lett 62(3):335-40 Details

Schultz W, Studer A, Jonsson G, Sundström E, Mefford I (1985), “Deficits in behavioral initiation and execution processes in monkeys with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism.” Neurosci Lett 59(2):225-32 Details

Toan DL, Schultz W (1985), “Responses of rat pallidum cells to cortex stimulation and effects of altered dopaminergic activity.” Neuroscience 15(3):683-94 Details

1984

Aebischer P, Schultz W (1984), “The activity of pars compacta neurons of the monkey substantia nigra is depressed by apomorphine.” Neurosci Lett 50(1-3):25-9 Details

Schultz W (1984), “Recent physiological and pathophysiological aspects of Parkinsonian movement disorders.” Life Sci 34(23):2213-23 Details

1982

Schultz W (1982), ““Depletion of dopamine in the striatum as an experimental model of Parkinsonism: direct effects and adaptive mechanisms.” ” Prog Neurobiol 18(2-3):121-66

1981

Ruffieux A, Schultz W (1981), “[Influence of dopamine on pars reticulata neurones of substantia nigra (author's transl)].” J Physiol (Paris) 77(1):63-9 Details

Schultz W, Wiesendanger R, Hess B, Ruffieux A, Wiesendanger M (1981), “The somatotopy of the gracile nucleus in cats with agenesis of a hindfoot.” Exp Brain Res 43(3-4):413-8 Details

1980

Ruffieux A, Schultz W (1980), ““Dopaminergic activation of reticulata neurones in the substantia nigra.” ” Nature 285(5762):240-1

1979

Schultz W, Montgomery EB Jr, Marini R (1979), “"Proximal limb movements in response to microstimulation of primate dentate and interpositus nuclei mediated by brain-stem structures.” ” Brain 102(1):127-46

1978

Schultz W, Ungerstedt U (1978), “Striatal cell supersensitivity to apomorphine in dopamine-lesioned rats correlated to behaviour.” Neuropharmacology 17(6):349-53 Details

Schultz W, Ungerstedt U (1978), “A method to detect and record from striatal cells of low spontaneous activity by stimulating the corticostriatal pathway.” Brain Res 142(2):357-62 Details

Ungerstedt U, Ljungberg T, Schultz W (1978), “Dopamine receptor mechanisms: behavioral and electrophysiological studies.” Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 19:311-21 Details

Zangger P, Schultz W (1978), “The activity of cells of nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis during spontaneous locomotion in the decorticate cat.” Neurosci Lett 7(2-3):95-9 Details

1977

Allen GI, Gilbert PF, Marini R, Schultz W, Yin TC (1977), “Integration of cerebral and peripheral inputs by interpositus neurons in monkey.” Exp Brain Res 27(1):81-99 Details

Hellweg FC, Schultz W, Creutzfeldt OD (1977), ““Extracellular and intracellular recordings from cat's cortical whisker projection area: thalamocortical response transformation.”” J Neurophysiol 40(3):463-79

1976

Schultz W, Galbraith GC, Gottschaldt KM, Creutzfeldt OD (1976), “A comparison of primary afferent and cortical neurone activity coding sinus hair movements in the cat.” Exp Brain Res 24(4):365-81 Details

Schultz W, Montgomery EB Jr, Marini R (1976), “Stereotyped flexion of forelimb and hindlimb to microstimulation of dentate nucleus in cebus monkeys.” Brain Res 107(1):151-1 Details