Dr Rudolf Cardinal

University position

Associate Professor

Dr Rudolf Cardinal is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.


Department of Psychiatry


Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre and Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute

Home page


Research Themes

Systems and Computational Neuroscience

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience


Clinical informatics (including data capture and the proper use and analysis of routinely collected NHS data); computational psychiatry (including computational models of mind and behaviour); behavioural/cognitive neuroscience; liaison psychiatry.

Research Focus


computational models




Clinical conditions


Obsessive compulsive disorder



Behavioural analysis

Computational modelling



Ed Bullmore

Hannah Clarke

Emilio Fernandez-Egea

Trevor Robbins

Angela Roberts

Associated News Items



Cardinal RN (2017), “Clinical records anonymisation and text extraction (CRATE): an open-source software system” BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 17(1):50

Wallis CU, Cardinal RN, Alexander L, Roberts AC, Clarke HF (2017), “Opposing roles of primate areas 25 and 32 and their putative rodent homologs in the regulation of negative emotion ” PNAS


Barker V, Romaniuk L, Cardinal RN, Pope M, Nicol K, Hall J (2015), “Impulsivity in borderline personality disorder” Psychological Medicine 45: 1955-1964

Brydges NM, Holmes MC, Cardinal RN, Harris AP, Hall J (2015), “Early life stress produces compulsive-like behavior in females” Behavioral Neuroscience 300-308

Cardinal RN, Savulich G, Mann LM, Fernández-Egea E (2015), “Association between antipsychotic/antidepressant drug treatments and hospital admissions in schizophrenia assessed using a mental health case register” npj Schizophrenia 1: 15035

Weed MR, Bookbinder M, Polino J, Keavy D, Cardinal RN, Simmermacher-Mayer J, Cometa FL, King D, Thangathirupathy S, Macor JE, Bristow LJ (2015), “Negative allosteric modulators selective for the NR2b subtype of the NMDA receptor impairs cognition in multiple domains” Neuropsychopharmacology 41: 568-577


Clarke HF, Cardinal RN, Rygula R, Hong YT, Fryer TD, Sawiak SJ, Ferrari V, Cockcroft G, Aigbirhio FI, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (2014), “Orbitofrontal Dopamine Depletion Upregulates Caudate Dopamine and Alters Behavior via Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity.” J Neurosci 34(22):7663-76 Details

Rygula R, Clarke HF, Cardinal RN, Cockcroft GJ, Xia J, Dalley JW, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (2014), “Role of Central Serotonin in Anticipation of Rewarding and Punishing Outcomes: Effects of Selective Amygdala or Orbitofrontal 5-HT Depletion.” Cereb Cortex Details


Gillan CM, Morein-Zamir S, Kaser M, Fineberg NA, Sule A, Sahakian BJ, Cardinal RN, Robbins TW (2013), “Counterfactual Processing of Economic Action-Outcome Alternatives in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Further Evidence of Impaired Goal-Directed Behavior.” Biol Psychiatry Details


Cardinal RN, Bullmore ET (2011), “The Diagnosis of Psychosis” Cambridge University Press


Cardinal RN (2010), “Analysis of variance” Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (fourth edition; Weiner IB, Craighead WE, eds) 92-98

Cardinal RN, Aitken MR (2010), “Whisker: a client-server high-performance multimedia research control system.” Behav Res Methods 42(4):1059-71 Details

Cardinal RN, Everitt BJ (2010), “Neural systems of motivation” Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience (Koob GF, Thompson RF, Le Moal M, eds) 2: 376–386


Cardinal RN, Gregory CA (2009), “Osteomalacia and vitamin D deficiency in a psychiatric rehabilitation unit: case report and survey.” BMC Res Notes 2:82 Details

Cardinal RN, Shah DN, Edwards CJ, Hughes GR, Fernández-Egea E (2009), “Psychosis and catatonia as a first presentation of antiphospholipid syndrome.” Br J Psychiatry 195(3):272 Details


Chamberlain SR, Müller U, Deakin JB, Corlett PR, Dowson J, Cardinal RN, Aitken MR, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2007), “Lack of deleterious effects of buspirone on cognition in healthy male volunteers.” J Psychopharmacol 21(2):210-5 Details

Zernig G, Ahmed SH, Cardinal RN, Morgan D, Acquas E, Foltin RW, Vezina P, Negus SS, Crespo JA, Stöckl P, Grubinger P, Madlung E, Haring C, Kurz M, Saria A (2007), “Explaining the escalation of drug use in substance dependence: models and appropriate animal laboratory tests.” Pharmacology 80(2-3):65-119 Details


Cardinal RN (2006), “Neural systems implicated in delayed and probabilistic reinforcement.” Neural Netw 19(8):1277-301 Details

Cardinal RN, Aitken MRF (2006), “ANOVA for the Behavioural Sciences Researcher” Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, USA

Robbins TW, Cardinal RN, Di Ciano P, Halligan PWG, Hellemans KGC, Lee JLC, Everitt BJ (2006), “Neuroscience of drugs and addiction” Drugs and the Future: Brain Science, Addiction and Society (Nutt D, Robbins TW, Stimson GV, Ince M, Jackson A, eds, Academic Press) 11–88

Winstanley CA, Theobald DE, Dalley JW, Cardinal RN, Robbins TW (2006), “Double dissociation between serotonergic and dopaminergic modulation of medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex during a test of impulsive choice.” Cereb Cortex 16(1):106-14 Details


Cardinal RN, Cheung TH (2005), “Nucleus accumbens core lesions retard instrumental learning and performance with delayed reinforcement in the rat.” BMC Neurosci 6:9 Details

Cardinal RN, Howes NJ (2005), “Effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on choice between small certain rewards and large uncertain rewards in rats.” BMC Neurosci 6:37 Details

Cheung TH, Cardinal RN (2005), “Hippocampal lesions facilitate instrumental learning with delayed reinforcement but induce impulsive choice in rats.” BMC Neurosci 6:36 Details


Cardinal RN (2004), “Waiting for better things” The Psychologist 17: 684–687

Cardinal RN, Everitt BJ (2004), “Neural and psychological mechanisms underlying appetitive learning: links to drug addiction.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 14(2):156-62 Details

Cardinal RN, Winstanley CA, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2004), “Limbic corticostriatal systems and delayed reinforcement.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 1021:33-50 Details

Dalley JW, Cardinal RN, Robbins TW (2004), “Prefrontal executive and cognitive functions in rodents: neural and neurochemical substrates.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28(7):771-84 Details

Dalley JW, Theobald DE, Bouger P, Chudasama Y, Cardinal RN, Robbins TW (2004), “Cortical cholinergic function and deficits in visual attentional performance in rats following 192 IgG-saporin-induced lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex.” Cereb Cortex 14(8):922-32 Details

Winstanley CA, Theobald DE, Cardinal RN, Robbins TW (2004), “Contrasting roles of basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in impulsive choice.” J Neurosci 24(20):4718-22 Details


Cardinal RN, Parkinson JA, Hall J, Everitt BJ (2003), “The contribution of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex to emotion and motivated behaviour” International Congress Series 1250: 347–370

Cardinal RN, Parkinson JA, Marbini HD, Toner AJ, Bussey TJ, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2003), “Role of the anterior cingulate cortex in the control over behavior by Pavlovian conditioned stimuli in rats.” Behav Neurosci 117(3):566-87 Details

Cardinal RN, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2003), “Choosing delayed rewards: perspectives from learning theory, neurochemistry, and neuroanatomy” Choice, Behavioural Economics and Addiction (Vuchinich RE, Heather N, eds, Elsevier) 183–213

Everitt BJ, Cardinal RN, Parkinson JA, Robbins TW (2003), “Appetitive behavior: impact of amygdala-dependent mechanisms of emotional learning.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 985:233-50 Details


Cardinal RN, Daw N, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2002), “Local analysis of behaviour in the adjusting-delay task for assessing choice of delayed reinforcement.” Neural Netw 15(4-6):617-34 Details

Cardinal RN, Parkinson JA, Hall J, Everitt BJ (2002), “Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26(3):321-52 Details

Cardinal RN, Parkinson JA, Lachenal G, Halkerston KM, Rudarakanchana N, Hall J, Morrison CH, Howes SR, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2002), “Effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of the amygdala on autoshaping performance in rats.” Behav Neurosci 116(4):553-67 Details

Parkinson JA, Dalley JW, Cardinal RN, Bamford A, Fehnert B, Lachenal G, Rudarakanchana N, Halkerston KM, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2002), “Nucleus accumbens dopamine depletion impairs both acquisition and performance of appetitive Pavlovian approach behaviour: implications for mesoaccumbens dopamine function.” Behav Brain Res 137(1-2):149-63 Details


Cardinal RN, Aitken MRF (2001), “Whisker (v2.2)” www.whiskercontrol.com

Cardinal RN, Pennicott DR, Sugathapala CL, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2001), “Impulsive choice induced in rats by lesions of the nucleus accumbens core.” Science 292(5526):2499-501 Details

Dalley JW, McGaughy J, O'Connell MT, Cardinal RN, Levita L, Robbins TW (2001), “Distinct changes in cortical acetylcholine and noradrenaline efflux during contingent and noncontingent performance of a visual attentional task.” J Neurosci 21(13):4908-14 Details

Di Ciano P, Cardinal RN, Cowell RA, Little SJ, Everitt BJ (2001), “Differential involvement of NMDA, AMPA/kainate, and dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens core in the acquisition and performance of pavlovian approach behavior.” J Neurosci 21(23):9471-7 Details

Rahman S, J Sahakia B, N Cardinal R, Rogers R, Robbins T (2001), “Decision making and neuropsychiatry.” Trends Cogn Sci 5(6):271-277 Details


Cardinal RN (2000), “Whisker (v1)” www.whiskercontrol.com

Cardinal RN, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2000), “The effects of d-amphetamine, chlordiazepoxide, alpha-flupenthixol and behavioural manipulations on choice of signalled and unsignalled delayed reinforcement in rats.” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 152(4):362-75 Details

Everitt BJ, Cardinal RN, Hall J, Parkinson JA, Robbins TW (2000), “Differential involvement of amygdala subsystems in appetitive conditioning and drug addiction” The amygdala: a functional analysis (Aggleton JP, ed, second edition, Oxford University Press) 353–390

Parkinson JA, Cardinal RN, Everitt BJ (2000), “Limbic cortical-ventral striatal systems underlying appetitive conditioning.” Prog Brain Res 126:263-85 Details