Dr Howard Ring

Howard Ring

University position


Dr Howard Ring is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.


Department of Psychiatry



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Research Theme

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience


My research covers three main areas. My work in epilepsy is largely concerned with studying the management and behavioural correlates of treatment-resistant epilepsy in people with developmental or acquired brain damage. In the field of Autism research I am investigating the brain basis of specific core symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders. I also work to investigate the clinical neuropsychiatric features and underlying biological processes of several neurological diseases in which there are significant neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Research Focus





Intellectual disability

Clinical conditions



Behavioural analysis

Electrophysiological recording techniques

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Neuropsychological testing


No collaborators listed

Associated News Items



    Carroll C, Watson P, Spoudeas HA, Hawkins MM, Walker DA, Clare IC, Holland AJ, Ring HA (2013), “Prevalence, associations, and predictors of apathy in adult survivors of infantile (<5 years of age) posterior fossa brain tumors.” Neuro Oncol 15(4):497-505 Details

    Catarino A, Andrade A, Churches O, Wagner AP, Baron-Cohen S, Ring H (2013), “Task-related functional connectivity in autism spectrum conditions: an EEG study using wavelet transform coherence.” Mol Autism 4(1):1 Details

    Illingworth JL, Ring H (2013), “Conceptual distinctions between reflex and nonreflex precipitated seizures in the epilepsies: a systematic review of definitions employed in the research literature.” Epilepsia 54(12):2036-47 Details

    Leung HT, Ring H (2013), “Epilepsy in four genetically determined syndromes of intellectual disability.” J Intellect Disabil Res 57(1):3-20 Details

    Presland AD, Clare IC, Broughton S, Luke L, Wheeler E, Fairchild G, Watson PC, Chan WY, Kearns A, Ring HA (2013), “Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in adults with intellectual disabilities: a preliminary investigation.” J Intellect Disabil Res 57(6):539-51 Details

    Redley M, Prince E, Bateman N, Pennington M, Wood N, Croudace T, Ring H (2013), “The involvement of parents in healthcare decisions where adult children are at risk of lacking decision-making capacity: a qualitative study of treatment decisions in epilepsy.” J Intellect Disabil Res 57(6):531-8 Details


    Bradley P, Byrne K, Ring HA (2012), “How to get the most from a consultation with a person who has a learning disability.” Pract Neurol 12(1):44-8 Details

    Churches O, Baron-Cohen S, Ring H (2012), “The psychophysiology of narrower face processing in autism spectrum conditions.” Neuroreport 23(6):395-9 Details

    Churches O, Damiano C, Baron-Cohen S, Ring H (2012), “Getting to know you: the acquisition of new face representations in autism spectrum conditions.” Neuroreport 23(11):668-72 Details

    Luke L, Clare IC, Ring H, Redley M, Watson P (2012), “Decision-making difficulties experienced by adults with autism spectrum conditions.” Autism 16(6):612-21 Details

    Pennington M, Prince E, Bateman N, Gray J, Croudace TJ, Redley M, Wood N, Ring H (2012), “Factors influencing the costs of epilepsy in adults with an intellectual disability.” Seizure 21(3):205-10 Details

    Simblett SK, Badham R, Greening K, Adlam A, Ring H, Bateman A (2012), “Validating independent ratings of executive functioning following acquired brain injury using Rasch analysis.” Neuropsychol Rehabil 22(6):874-89 Details


    Catarino A, Churches O, Baron-Cohen S, Andrade A, Ring H (2011), “Atypical EEG complexity in autism spectrum conditions: A multiscale entropy analysis.” Clin Neurophysiol Details

    Catarino A, Luke L, Waldman S, Andrade A, Fletcher PC, Ring H (2011), “An fMRI investigation of detection of semantic incongruities in autistic spectrum conditions.” Eur J Neurosci 33(3):558-67 Details

    Damiano C, Churches O, Ring H, Baron-Cohen S (2011), “The development of perceptual expertise for faces and objects in autism spectrum conditions.” Autism Res Details

    Luke L, Ring H, Clare I (2011), “Decision-making difficulties experienced by adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions. In Press.” Autism

    Parry-Hughes R, Ring H, Redley M (2011), “Friendship and adults with profound disabilities in UK intellectual disability Policy. In Press.” Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities.

    Prince E, Ring H (2011), “Causes of learning disability and epilepsy: a review.” Curr Opin Neurol 24(2):154-8 Details

    Siaperas P, Ring HA, McAllister CJ, Henderson S, Barnett A, Watson P, Holland AJ (2011), “Atypical Movement Performance and Sensory Integration in Asperger's Syndrome.” J Autism Dev Disord Details

    Simblett S, Ring H, Bateman A. (2011), “Computerised Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (cCBT): A possible treatment for mood disorders experienced by people with neurological conditions? In Press.” Neuropsychological Rehabilitation

    Simblett SK, Ring H, Bateman A (2011), “Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT): a possible treatment for mood disorders experienced by people with neurological conditions?” Neuropsychol Rehabil 21(6):925-8 Details


    Churches O, Wheelwright S, Baron-Cohen S, Ring H (2010), “The N170 is not modulated by attention in autism spectrum conditions.” Neuroreport 21(6):399-403 Details


    Churches O, Baron-Cohen S, Ring H (2009), “Seeing face-like objects: an event-related potential study.” Neuroreport 20(14):1290-4 Details

    Karim K, Edwards R, Dogra N, Anderson I, Davies T, Lindsay J, Ring H, Cavendish S (2009), “A survey of the teaching and assessment of undergraduate psychiatry in the medical schools of the United Kingdom and Ireland.” Med Teach 31(11):1024-9 Details

    Ring H, Zia A, Bateman N, Williams E, Lindeman S, Himlok K (2009), “How is epilepsy treated in people with a learning disability? A retrospective observational study of 183 individuals.” Seizure 18(4):264-8 Details


    Langosch J, Rand S, Ghosh B, Sharma S, Tench C, Stratton R, D'Cruz D, Trimble M, Barrett G and Ring H. (2008), “A clinical electrophysiological study of emotional lability in patients with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE)” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 20: 201-209

    Ring H, Woodbury-Smith M, Watson P, Wheelwright S, Baron-Cohen S (2008), “Clinical heterogeneity among people with high functioning autism spectrum conditions: evidence favouring a continuous severity gradient.” Behav Brain Funct 4:11 Details


    Ring H, Sharma S, Wheelwright S, Barrett G (2007), “An electrophysiological investigation of semantic incongruity processing by people with Asperger's syndrome.” J Autism Dev Disord 37(2):281-90 Details

    Ring H, Zia A, Lindeman S, Himlok K (2007), “Interactions between seizure frequency, psychopathology, and severity of intellectual disability in a population with epilepsy and a learning disability.” Epilepsy Behav 11(1):92-7 Details


    Baron-Cohen S, Ring H, Chitnis X, Wheelwright S, Gregory L, Williams S, Brammer M, Bullmore E (2006), “fMRI of parents of children with Asperger Syndrome: a pilot study.” Brain Cogn 61(1):122-30 Details


    Gene-Cos N, Pottinger R, Barrett G, Trimble MR, Ring HA (2005), “A comparative study of mismatch negativity (MMN) in epilepsy and non-epileptic seizures.” Epileptic Disord 7(4):363-72 Details

    Gene-Cos N, Ring HA (2005), “Making sense of non-epileptic seizures.” Epileptic Disord 7(2):123-30 Details

    Ring HA (2005), “Withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs in people with non-epileptic seizures.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76(12):1613 Details


    Serra-Mestres J, Ring HA, Costa DC, Gacinovic S, Walker Z, Lees AJ, Robertson MM, Trimble MR (2004), “Dopamine transporter binding in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a [123I]FP-CIT/SPECT study.” Acta Psychiatr Scand 109(2):140-6 Details


    Ring HA (2002), “Wall between neurology and psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry is alive and well..” BMJ 325(7367):778 Details

    Ring HA, Serra-Mestres J (2002), “Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72(1):12-21 Details

    Serra-Mestres J, Ring HA (2002), “Evidence supporting a cognitive model of depression in Parkinson's disease.” J Nerv Ment Dis 190(6):407-10 Details


    Baron-Cohen S, Ring HA, Bullmore ET, Wheelwright S, Ashwin C, Williams SC (2000), “The amygdala theory of autism.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24(3):355-64 Details

    Ring HA, White S, Costa DC, Pottinger R, Dick JP, Koeze T, Sutcliffe J (2000), “A SPECT study of the effect of vagal nerve stimulation on thalamic activity in patients with epilepsy.” Seizure 9(6):380-4 Details


    Baron-Cohen S, Ring HA, Wheelwright S, Bullmore ET, Brammer MJ, Simmons A, Williams SC (1999), “Social intelligence in the normal and autistic brain: an fMRI study.” Eur J Neurosci 11(6):1891-8 Details

    GenĂ©-Cos N, Ring HA, Pottinger RC, Barrett G (1999), “Possible roles for mismatch negativity in neuropsychiatry.” Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 12(1):17-27 Details

    Ring HA, Acton PD, Scull D, Costa DC, Gacinovik S, Trimble MR (1999), “Patterns of brain activity in patients with epilepsy and depression.” Seizure 8(7):390-7 Details

    Ring HA, Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Williams SC, Brammer M, Andrew C, Bullmore ET (1999), “Cerebral correlates of preserved cognitive skills in autism: a functional MRI study of embedded figures task performance.” Brain 122 ( Pt 7):1305-15 Details

    Serra-Mestres J, Ring HA (1999), “Vulnerability to emotionally negative stimuli in Parkinson's disease: an investigation using the Emotional Stroop task.” Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 12(1):52-7 Details


    Ring HA (1998), “Crime in Huntington's disease.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 65(4):435 Details

    Ring HA, Moriarty J, Trimble MR (1998), “A prospective study of the early postsurgical psychiatric associations of epilepsy surgery.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 64(5):601-4 Details


    George MS, Ketter TA, Parekh PI, Rosinsky N, Ring HA, Pazzaglia PJ, Marangell LB, Callahan AM, Post RM (1997), “Blunted left cingulate activation in mood disorder subjects during a response interference task (the Stroop).” J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 9(1):55-63 Details

    Schmitz EB, Moriarty J, Costa DC, Ring HA, Ell PJ, Trimble MR (1997), “Psychiatric profiles and patterns of cerebral blood flow in focal epilepsy: interactions between depression, obsessionality, and perfusion related to the laterality of the epilepsy.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 62(5):458-63 Details


    Pilo L, Ring H, Quinn N, Trimble M (1996), “Depression in multiple system atrophy and in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a pilot comparative study.” Biol Psychiatry 39(9):803-7 Details

    Ring, H (1996), “Serotonin central synaptic transmission and the regulation of the extrapyramidal system: a psychiatric perspective.” Human Psycholpharmacology 11: S83-S93

    Thomas L, Trimble M, Schmitz B, Ring H (1996), “Vigabatrin and behaviour disorders: a retrospective survey.” Epilepsy Res 25(1):21-7 Details


    Ring HA (1995), “The value of Positron Emission Tomography in Psychopharmacology.” Human Psychopharmacology 10: 79-87


    Baron-Cohen S, Ring H, Moriarty J, Schmitz B, Costa D, Ell P (1994), “Recognition of mental state terms. Clinical findings in children with autism and a functional neuroimaging study of normal adults.” Br J Psychiatry 165(5):640-9 Details

    George MS, Ketter TA, Parekh PI, Rosinsky N, Ring H, Casey BJ, Trimble MR, Horwitz B, Herscovitch P, Post RM (1994), “Regional brain activity when selecting a response despite interference: An H215O PET study of the Stroop and an Emotional Stroop.” Human Brain Mapping 1:194-209

    Ring HA, Bench CJ, Trimble MR, Brooks DJ, Frackowiak RS, Dolan RJ (1994), “Depression in Parkinson's disease. A positron emission study.” Br J Psychiatry 165(3):333-9 Details

    Ring HA, Trimble MR, Costa DC, Moriarty J, Verhoeff NP, Ell PJ (1994), “Striatal dopamine receptor binding in epileptic psychoses.” Biol Psychiatry 35(6):375-80 Details


    George MS, Trimble MR, Ring HA, Sallee FR, Robertson MM (1993), “Obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome.” Am J Psychiatry 150(1):93-7 Details

    Markus HS, Ring H, Kouris K, Costa DC (1993), “Alterations in regional cerebral blood flow, with increased temporal interhemispheric asymmetries, in the normal elderly: an HMPAO SPECT study.” Nucl Med Commun 14(8):628-33 Details

    Moriarty J, Ring HA, Robertson MM (1993), “An idiot savant calendrical calculator with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: implications for an understanding of the savant syndrome.” Psychol Med 23(4):1019-21 Details

    Ring H (1993), “Psychological and social problems of Parkinson's disease.” Br J Hosp Med 49(2):111-6 Details

    Ring HA, Crellin R, Kirker S, Reynolds EH (1993), “Vigabatrin and depression.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 56(8):925-8 Details


    George MS, Costa DC, Kouris K, Ring HA, Ell PJ (1992), “Cerebral blood flow abnormalities in adults with infantile autism.” J Nerv Ment Dis 180(7):413-7 Details

    George MS, Ring HA, Costa DC, Kouris K, Ell PJ (1992), “Demonstration of human motor cortex activation using SPECT.” J Neural Transm Gen Sect 87(3):231-6 Details

    George MS, Trimble MR, Costa DC, Robertson MM, Ring HA, Ell PJ (1992), “Elevated frontal cerebral blood flow in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a 99Tcm-HMPAO SPECT study.” Psychiatry Res 45(3):143-51 Details

    Pilowsky LS, Ring H, Shine PJ, Battersby M, Lader M (1992), “Rapid tranquillisation. A survey of emergency prescribing in a general psychiatric hospital.” Br J Psychiatry 160:831-5 Details

    Ring HA, Trimble MR, Costa DC, George MS, Verhoeff P, Ell PJ (1992), “Effect of vigabatrin on striatal dopamine receptors: evidence in humans for interactions of GABA and dopamine systems.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55(9):758-61 Details


    Reynolds EH, Ring HA, Farr IN, Heller AJ, Elwes RD (1991), “Open, double-blind and long-term study of vigabatrin in chronic epilepsy.” Epilepsia 32(4):530-8 Details

    Ring HA, George M, Costa DC, Ell PJ (1991), “The use of cerebral activation procedures with single photon emission tomography.” Eur J Nucl Med 18(2):133-41 Details

    Ring HA, Heller AJ, Marshall WJ, Johnson AL, Reynolds EH (1991), “Plasma uric acid in patients receiving anticonvulsant monotherapy.” Epilepsy Res 8(3):241-4 Details


    Pilowsky L, Ring H (1990), “Violence in hospital.” Br J Psychiatry 156:132-3 Details

    Ring HA, Heller AJ, Farr IN, Reynolds EH (1990), “Vigabatrin: rational treatment for chronic epilepsy.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 53(12):1051-5 Details

    Ring HA, Reynolds EH (1990), “Vigabatrin and behaviour disturbance.” Lancet 335(8695):970 Details


    Heller AJ, Ring HA, Reynolds EH (1988), “Factors relating to dramatic response to clobazam therapy in refractory epilepsy.” Epilepsy Res 2(4):276-80 Details

    Quinn NP, Ring H, Honavar M, Marsden CD (1988), “Contractures of the extremities in parkinsonian subjects: a report of three cases with a possible association with bromocriptine treatment.” Clin Neuropharmacol 11(3):268-77 Details

    Reynolds EH, Heller AJ, Ring HA (1988), “Clobazam for epilepsy.” Lancet 2(8610):565 Details

    Reynolds EH, Ring H, Heller A (1988), “A controlled trial of gamma-vinyl-GABA (vigabatrin) in drug-resistant epilepsy.” Br J Clin Pract Suppl 61:33 Details


    Heller AJ, Ring HA, Reynolds EH (1987), “Clobazam for refractory epilepsy.” Arch Neurol 44(6):578 Details