Dr Golam Khandaker

University position

Wellcome Trust Intermediate Clinical Fellow

Dr Golam Khandaker is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.


Department of Psychiatry


Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute



Research Themes

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience

Clinical and Veterinary Neuroscience


Working at the interface between immunology and psychiatry, my research examines novel immunological mechanism and treatment for depression, schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders using epidemiological, genetic and treatment studies.

I am particularly interested in the role of inflammation (cytokines, genes and peripheral immune cells) in psychiatric disorders. I use population-based epidemiological and genetic studies to examine causality and to identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention. I use clinical trials/ experimental medicine studies to examine the effect of immune-modulating drugs on mood and cognition. I also use immune and behavioural phenotyping to identify groups that may benefit from immunotherapeutics.

Funded by the Wellcome Trust, the aim of my work is to identify novel mechanisms and treatments for major psychiatric disorders that affect one in four people in their lifetime, but many of those affected do not respond to currently available treatments.

Figure 1: Depression and Psychosis at Age 18 Years by Tertiles of IL-6 at Age 9 Years in the ALSPAC Cohort
Figure 1: Depression and Psychosis at Age 18 Years by Tertiles of IL-6 at Age 9 Years in the ALSPAC Cohort
Click image to view full-size

Research Focus







Clinical conditions

Anxiety disorders

Bipolar disorder

Depressive disorders



Behavioural analysis

Computational modelling

Cross-sectional and cohort studies

Cytokine Assay

Gene Expression


Mendelian Randomisation

Randomised control trials



Stephen Burgess

Alasdair Coles

Peter Jones

United Kingdom

ALSPAC Birth Cohort Web: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/

Glyn Lewis Web: https://iris.ucl.ac.uk/iris/br...

Stan Zammit Web: http://www.bris.ac.uk/social-...


Christina Dalman Web: http://ki.se/en/peop...

Robert Dantzer Web: http://faculty.mdanderson.org/Robert_...

Associated News Items

Key publications

Kappelmann N, Lewis G, Dantzer R, Jones PB, Khandaker GM. (2016), “Antidepressant activity of anti-cytokine treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of chronic inflammatory conditions.” Molecular Psychiatry. 2016 Oct 18. doi: 10.1038/mp.2016.167. [Epub ahead of print]

Khandaker GM, Cousins L, Deakin J, Lennox BR, Yolken R, Jones PB. (2015), “Inflammation and immunity in schizophrenia: implications for pathophysiology and treatment.” Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Mar;2(3):258-270.

Khandaker GM, Pearson RM, Zammit S, Lewis G, Jones PB (2014), “Association of Serum Interleukin 6 and C-Reactive Protein in Childhood With Depression and Psychosis in Young Adult Life: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study.” JAMA Psychiatry Details



Filatova S, Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Hirvonen N, Freeman A, Ivandic I, Hurtig T, Khandaker GM, Jones PB, Moilanen K, Miettunen J. (2017), “Early motor developmental milestones and schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Schizophrenia Research. 2017 Jan 25. pii: S0920-9964(17)30042-7. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.01.029. [Epub ahead of print]

Filatova S, Marttila R, Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Nordström T, Veijola J, Mäki P, Khandaker GM, Isohanni M, Jääskeläinen E, Moilanen K, Miettunen J. (2017), “A comparison of the cumulative incidence and early risk factors for psychotic disorder in young adults in the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts 1966 and 1986.” Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences. 2017 Jun;26(3):314-324.

Hayes JF, Khandaker GM, Anderson J, Mackay D, Zammit S, Lewis G, Smith DJ, Osborn DP. (2017), “Childhood interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and atopic disorders as risk factors for hypomanic symptoms in young adulthood: a longitudinal birth cohort study.” Psychological Medicine. 2017 Jan;47(1):23-33.

Khandaker GM, Dantzer R, Jones PB. (2017), “Immunopsychiatry: important facts.” Psychological Medicine. 2017 Apr 18:1-9. doi: 10.1017/S0033291717000745. [Epub ahead of print]

Metcalf SA, Jones PB, Nordstrom T, Timonen M, Mäki P, Miettunen J, Jääskeläinen E, Järvelin MR, Stochl J, Murray GK, Veijola J, Khandaker GM. (2017), “Serum C-reactive protein in adolescence and risk of schizophrenia in adulthood: A prospective birth cohort study.” Brain, Behaviour and Immunity. 2017 Jan;59:253-259. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.09.008. Epub 2016 Sep 10.


Dibben CR, Khandaker GM, Underwood BR, O'Loughlin C, Keep C, Mann L, Jones PB. (2016), “First-generation antipsychotics: not gone but forgotten.” BJPsych Bulletin. 2016 Apr;40(2):93-6.

Khandaker GM, Dantzer R. (2016), “Is there a role for immune-to-brain communication in schizophrenia?” Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 2016 May;233(9):1559-73.

Khandaker GM, Zammit S, Lewis G, Jones PB. (2016), “Association between serum C-reactive protein and DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder in adolescence: Findings from the ALSPAC cohort.” Neurobiol of Stress. 2016 Oct;4:55-61.

Siebald C, Khandaker GM, Zammit S, Lewis G, Jones PB. (2016), “Association between childhood psychiatric disorders and psychotic experiences in adolescence: A population-based longitudinal study.” Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2016 Aug;69:45-52.

Stochl J, Jones PB, Perez J, Khandaker GM, Böhnke JR, Croudace TJ. (2016), “Effects of ignoring clustered data structure in confirmatory factor analysis of ordered polytomous items: a simulation study based on PANSS.” Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2016 Sep;25(3):205-19.

Zimbron J, Khandaker GM, Toschi C, Jones PB, Fernandez-Egea E. (2016), “A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of treatments for clozapine-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome.” Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016 Sep;26(9):1353-65. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2016.07.010. Epub 2016 Aug 2.


Khandaker GM, Dibben CR, Jones PB. (2015), “Hearing voices: are we getting the message?” British Journal of Psychiatry. 2015 Sep;207(3):271-2.

Khandaker GM, Stochl J, Zammit S, Lewis G, Jones PB. (2015), “A population-based prospective birth cohort study of childhood neurocognitive and psychological functioning in healthy survivors of early life meningitis.” Annals of Epidemiology. 2015 Apr;25(4):236-42.

Stochl J, Khandaker GM, Lewis G, Perez J, Goodyer IM, Zammit S, Sullivan S, Croudace TJ, Jones PB. (2015), “Mood, anxiety and psychotic phenomena measure a common psychopathological factor.” Psychological Medicine. 2015 May;45(7):1483-93.


Khandaker GM, Stochl J, Zammit S, Lewis G, Jones PB (2014), “A population-based longitudinal study of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, IQ and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence.” Psychol Med :1-10 Details

Khandaker GM, Stochl J, Zammit S, Lewis G, Jones PB (2014), “Childhood Epstein-Barr Virus infection and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence: A population-based prospective serological study.” Schizophr Res 158(1-3):19-24 Details

Khandaker GM, Zammit S, Lewis G, Jones PB (2014), “A population-based study of atopic disorders and inflammatory markers in childhood before psychotic experiences in adolescence.” Schizophr Res 152(1):139-45 Details


Khandaker GM, Gandamaneni PK, Dibben CR, Cherukuru S, Cairns P, Ray MK (2013), “Evaluating care pathways for community psychiatry in England: a qualitative study.” J Eval Clin Pract 19(2):298-303 Details

Khandaker GM, Zimbron J, Lewis G, Jones PB (2013), “Prenatal maternal infection, neurodevelopment and adult schizophrenia: a systematic review of population-based studies.” Psychol Med 43(2):239-57 Details

Zimbrón J, Ruiz de Azúa S, Khandaker GM, Gandamaneni PK, Crane CM, González-Pinto A, Stochl J, Jones PB, Pérez J (2013), “Clinical and sociodemographic comparison of people at high-risk for psychosis and with first-episode psychosis.” Acta Psychiatr Scand 127(3):210-6 Details


Khandaker GM, Dibben CR, Jones PB (2012), “Does maternal body mass index during pregnancy influence risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring?” Obes Rev 13(6):518-27 Details

Khandaker GM, Kirkbride JB, Jones PB (2012), “Epidemiological challenges in systematic reviews.” Br J Psychiatry 201(3):248 Details

Khandaker GM, Zimbron J, Dalman C, Lewis G, Jones PB (2012), “Childhood infection and adult schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of population-based studies.” Schizophr Res 139(1-3):161-8 Details


Khandaker GM, Barnett JH, White IR, Jones PB (2011), “A quantitative meta-analysis of population-based studies of premorbid intelligence and schizophrenia.” Schizophr Res 132(2-3):220-7 Details

Khandaker GM, Jones PB (2011), “Cognitive and functional impairment after severe sepsis.” JAMA 305(7):673-4; author reply 674 Details


Khandaker GM, Khandaker GM, Dibben C, Zurynski Y, Elliott EJ, Booy R (2010), “Mania in a patient with H1N1: is oseltamivir the culprit or a red herring?” Am J Psychiatry 167(9):1129-30; author reply 1130 Details


Dibben C, Khandaker G, Ramana R (2009), “Aftercare under Section 117 of the Mental Health Act 1983: awareness and practice.” Med Sci Law 49(1):41-5 Details

Khandaker GM, Cherukuru S, Dibben C, Ray MK. (2009), “From sector-based to a functional model: a qualitative study of staff perception” The Psychiatrist (Formerly Psychiatric Bulletin) 33: 329- 332


Dibben C, Saeed H, Stagias K, Khandaker GM, Rubinsztein J. (2008), “Impact of a Crisis Resolution and Home Treatment Team (CRHTT) for older people with mental illness” The Psychiatrist (Formerly Psychiatric Bulletin) 32: 268-270