Dr Peter Smielewski

Peter Smielewski

University position

Senior Research Associate

Dr Peter Smielewski is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.

Departments

Department of Clinical Neurosciences

Institutes

Neurosurgery Unit

Email

ps10011@cam.ac.uk

Home page

http://www.neurosurg.cam.ac.uk

Research Theme

Systems and Computational Neuroscience

Interests

In an established environment of Clinical Neuroscience Dept large quantities of data can be captured from bed-side monitors. Using that data, continuous assessment of changing cerebrovascular haemodynamics and oxygenation is possible but requires sophisticated signal analysis. My primary research involves development of ICM+ software which encapsulates 20 years of our experience in brain monitoring gained in multiple neurosurgical and intensive care centres. It collects data from bedside monitors and produces on-line trends of parameters defined using highly configurable signal processing formulae. Using a variety of statistical charts complex information coming off the bedside monitors can be summarized in a concise fashion and presented to medical staff in a simple way that alerts them to the development of various pathological processes. The software is now installed in a number of academic centres around the world providing basis for multi-centre collaborations in brain monitoring.

Illustration of various aspects of data acquisition and analysis using ICM+ software
Illustration of various aspects of data acquisition and analysis using ICM+ software
Click image to view full-size

Research Focus

Keywords

brain monitoring

biomedical signal analysis

cerebral haemodynamics

cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

cerebral autoregulation testing

Clinical conditions

Hydrocephalus

Stroke

Traumatic brain injury

Equipment

Brain tissue oxygenation

Computational modelling

Haemodynamic monitoring

Near-infrared Spectroscopy

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound

Collaborators

Cambridge

Marek Czosnyka

David Menon

John Pickard

United Kingdom

Kristian Aquilina Web: http://www.nbt.nhs.uk/

International

Phillip Bijlenga Web: http://www.hug-ge.ch/

Ken Brady Web: http://www.hopkinshospital.org/index.html

Matthias Jaeger Web: http://www.uniklinik-leipzig.de/

Andrea Lavinio Web: http://www.spedalicivili.brescia.it

Phillip Lewis Web: http://www.alfred.org.au/

Stephan Ng Web: http://www.nni.com.sg/

Martin Schumann Web: http://www.mh-hannover.de/index.p...

Luzius Steiner Web: http://www.kantonsspital-basel.ch/

Associated News Items


    Key publications

    Bijlenga P, Czosnyka M, Budohoski KP, Soehle M, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ, Smielewski P (2010), “"Optimal cerebral perfusion pressure" in poor grade patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage.” Neurocrit Care 13(1):17-23 Details

    Zweifel C, Castellani G, Czosnyka M, Carrera E, Brady KM, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD, Smielewski P (2010), “Continuous assessment of cerebral autoregulation with near-infrared spectroscopy in adults after subarachnoid hemorrhage.” Stroke 41(9):1963-8 Details

    Smielewski P, Lavinio A, Timofeev I, Radolovich D, Perkes I, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2008), “ICM+, a flexible platform for investigations of cerebrospinal dynamics in clinical practice.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 102:145-51 Details

    Zweifel C, Lavinio A, Steiner LA, Radolovich D, Smielewski P, Timofeev I, Hiler M, Balestreri M, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD, Hutchinson P, Czosnyka M (2008), “Continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity in patients with head injury.” Neurosurg Focus 25(4):E2 Details

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Lavinio A, Czosnyka Z, Pickard JD (2007), “A synopsis of brain pressures: which? when? are they all useful?” Neurol Res 29(7):672-9 Details

    Lavinio A, Schmidt EA, Haubrich C, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2007), “Noninvasive evaluation of dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation using Finapres plethysmograph and transcranial Doppler” Stroke 38(2):402-404 Details

    Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Steiner L, Belestri M, Piechnik S, Pickard JD (2005), “ICM+: software for on-line analysis of bedside monitoring data after severe head trauma” Acta Neurochir Suppl 95:43-49 Details

    Smielewski P, Coles JP, Fryer TD, Minhas PS, Menon DK, Pickard JD (2002), “Integrated image analysis solutions for PET datasets in damaged brain” J Clin Monit Comput 17(7-8):427-440

    Publications

    2013

    Aries MJ, Budohoski KP, Smielewski PS, Czosnyka M, Brady KM (2013), “The authors reply.” Crit Care Med 41(1):e5 Details

    Budohoski KP, Czosnyka M, Kirkpatrick PJ, Smielewski P, Steiner LA, Pickard JD (2013), “Clinical relevance of cerebral autoregulation following subarachnoid haemorrhage.” Nat Rev Neurol 9(3):152-63 Details

    Budohoski KP, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Varsos GV, Kasprowicz M, Brady KM, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ (2013), “Cerebral autoregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage: comparison of three methods.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 33(3):449-56 Details

    Dias C, Maia I, Cerejo A, Varsos G, Smielewski P, Paiva JA, Czosnyka M (2013), “Pressures, Flow, and Brain Oxygenation During Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure.” Neurocrit Care Details

    Fraser CD 3rd, Brady KM, Rhee CJ, Easley RB, Kibler K, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Kaczka DW, Andropoulos DB, Rusin C (2013), “The frequency response of cerebral autoregulation.” J Appl Physiol (1985) 115(1):52-6 Details

    Haubrich C, Steiner LA, Diehl RR, Kasprowicz M, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2013), “Doppler flow velocity and intra-cranial pressure: responses to short-term mild hypocapnia help to assess the pressure-volume relationship after head injury.” Ultrasound Med Biol 39(9):1521-6 Details

    Lazaridis C, Smielewski P, Steiner LA, Brady KM, Hutchinson P, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2013), “Optimal cerebral perfusion pressure: are we ready for it?” Neurol Res 35(2):138-48 Details

    Soehle M, Gies B, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M (2013), “Reduced complexity of intracranial pressure observed in short time series of intracranial hypertension following traumatic brain injury in adults.” J Clin Monit Comput 27(4):395-403 Details

    Varsos GV, de Riva N, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Brady KM, Reinhard M, Avolio A, Czosnyka M (2013), “Critical closing pressure during intracranial pressure plateau waves.” Neurocrit Care 18(3):341-8 Details

    Varsos GV, Kasprowicz M, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M (2013), “Model-based Indices Describing Cerebrovascular Dynamics.” Neurocrit Care Details

    Varsos GV, Richards H, Kasprowicz M, Budohoski KP, Brady KM, Reinhard M, Avolio A, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2013), “Critical closing pressure determined with a model of cerebrovascular impedance.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 33(2):235-43 Details

    Varsos GV, Richards HK, Kasprowicz M, Reinhard M, Smielewski P, Brady KM, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2013), “Cessation of Diastolic Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity: The Role of Critical Closing Pressure.” Neurocrit Care Details

    Werndle MC, Saadoun S, Phang I, Czosnyka M, Varsos GV, Czosnyka ZH, Smielewski P, Jamous A, Bell BA, Zoumprouli A, Papadopoulos MC (2013), “Monitoring of Spinal Cord Perfusion Pressure in Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Initial Findings of the Injured Spinal Cord Pressure Evaluation Study.” Crit Care Med Details

    Zweifel C, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P (2013), “In reply. Transcranial Doppler derived pulsatility index in the assessment of intracranial pressure: the trend is your friend.” Neurosurgery 72(2):E320 Details

    2012

    Aries MJ, Czosnyka M, Budohoski KP, Kolias AG, Radolovich DK, Lavinio A, Pickard JD, Smielewski P (2012), “Continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity using pulse waveform of intracranial pressure.” Neurocrit Care 17(1):67-76 Details

    Aries MJ, Czosnyka M, Budohoski KP, Steiner LA, Lavinio A, Kolias AG, Hutchinson PJ, Brady KM, Menon DK, Pickard JD, Smielewski P (2012), “Continuous determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in traumatic brain injury.” Crit Care Med 40(8):2456-63 Details

    Brady KM, Easley RB, Kibler K, Kaczka DW, Andropoulos D, Fraser CD 3rd, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Adams GJ, Rhee CJ, Rusin CG (2012), “Positive end-expiratory pressure oscillation facilitates brain vascular reactivity monitoring.” J Appl Physiol (1985) 113(9):1362-8 Details

    Budohoski KP, Czosnyka M, de Riva N, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Menon DK, Kirkpatrick PJ, Lavinio A (2012), “The relationship between cerebral blood flow autoregulation and cerebrovascular pressure reactivity after traumatic brain injury.” Neurosurgery 71(3):652-60; discussion 660-1 Details

    Budohoski KP, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Kasprowicz M, Helmy A, Bulters D, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ (2012), “Impairment of cerebral autoregulation predicts delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective observational study.” Stroke 43(12):3230-7 Details

    Budohoski KP, Schmidt B, Smielewski P, Kasprowicz M, Plontke R, Pickard JD, Klingelhöfer J, Czosnyka M (2012), “Non-invasively estimated ICP pulse amplitude strongly correlates with outcome after TBI.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 114:121-5 Details

    Budohoski KP, Zweifel C, Kasprowicz M, Sorrentino E, Diedler J, Brady KM, Smielewski P, Menon DK, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ, Czosnyka M (2012), “What comes first? The dynamics of cerebral oxygenation and blood flow in response to changes in arterial pressure and intracranial pressure after head injury.” Br J Anaesth 108(1):89-99 Details

    Czosnyka M, Richards HK, Reinhard M, Steiner LA, Budohoski K, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Kasprowicz M (2012), “Cerebrovascular time constant: dependence on cerebral perfusion pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration.” Neurol Res 34(1):17-24 Details

    de Riva N, Budohoski KP, Smielewski P, Kasprowicz M, Zweifel C, Steiner LA, Reinhard M, Fábregas N, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2012), “Transcranial Doppler pulsatility index: what it is and what it isn't.” Neurocrit Care 17(1):58-66 Details

    Haubrich C, Steiner L, Kim DJ, Kasprowicz M, Smielewski P, Diehl RR, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2012), “How does moderate hypocapnia affect cerebral autoregulation in response to changes in perfusion pressure in TBI patients?” Acta Neurochir Suppl 114:153-6 Details

    Kasprowicz M, Czosnyka M, Soehle M, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD, Budohoski KP (2012), “Vasospasm shortens cerebral arterial time constant.” Neurocrit Care 16(2):213-8 Details

    Kasprowicz M, Diedler J, Reinhard M, Carrera E, Smielewski P, Budohoski KP, Sorrentino E, Haubrich C, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2012), “Time constant of the cerebral arterial bed.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 114:17-21 Details

    Kasprowicz M, Diedler J, Reinhard M, Carrera E, Steiner LA, Smielewski P, Budohoski KP, Haubrich C, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2012), “Time constant of the cerebral arterial bed in normal subjects.” Ultrasound Med Biol 38(7):1129-37 Details

    Lee JK, Yang ZJ, Wang B, Larson AC, Jamrogowicz JL, Kulikowicz E, Kibler KK, Mytar JO, Carter EL, Burman HT, Brady KM, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Koehler RC, Shaffner DH (2012), “Noninvasive autoregulation monitoring in a swine model of pediatric cardiac arrest.” Anesth Analg 114(4):825-36 Details

    Lewis PM, Smielewski P, Rosenfeld JV, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2012), “Monitoring of the association between cerebral blood flow velocity and intracranial pressure.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 114:147-51 Details

    Lewis PM, Smielewski P, Rosenfeld JV, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2012), “Assessment of cerebral autoregulation from respiratory oscillations in ventilated patients after traumatic brain injury.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 114:141-6 Details

    Lu CW, Czosnyka M, Shieh JS, Smielewska A, Pickard JD, Smielewski P (2012), “Complexity of intracranial pressure correlates with outcome after traumatic brain injury.” Brain 135(Pt 8):2399-408 Details

    Mytar J, Kibler KK, Easley RB, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Andropoulos DB, Brady KM (2012), “Static autoregulation is intact early after severe unilateral brain injury in a neonatal Swine model.” Neurosurgery 71(1):138-45 Details

    Rhee CJ, Kibler KK, Easley RB, Andropoulos DB, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Brady KM (2012), “Renovascular reactivity measured by near-infrared spectroscopy.” J Appl Physiol (1985) 113(2):307-14 Details

    Smielewski P, Czosnyka Z, Kasprowicz M, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2012), “ICM+: a versatile software for assessment of CSF dynamics.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 114:75-9 Details

    Sorrentino E, Diedler J, Kasprowicz M, Budohoski KP, Haubrich C, Smielewski P, Outtrim JG, Manktelow A, Hutchinson PJ, Pickard JD, Menon DK, Czosnyka M (2012), “Critical thresholds for cerebrovascular reactivity after traumatic brain injury.” Neurocrit Care 16(2):258-66 Details

    Weerakkody RA, Czosnyka M, Zweifel C, Castellani G, Smielewski P, Brady K, Pickard JD, Czosnyka Z (2012), “Near infrared spectroscopy as possible non-invasive monitor of slow vasogenic ICP waves.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 114:181-5 Details

    Zweifel C, Czosnyka M, Carrera E, de Riva N, Pickard JD, Smielewski P (2012), “Reliability of the blood flow velocity pulsatility index for assessment of intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures in head-injured patients.” Neurosurgery 71(4):853-61 Details

    2011

    Budohoski KP, Reinhard M, Aries MJ, Czosnyka Z, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ, Czosnyka M (2011), “Monitoring cerebral autoregulation after head injury. Which component of transcranial Doppler flow velocity is optimal?” Neurocrit Care Details

    Carrera E, Kim DJ, Castellani G, Zweifel C, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2011), “Effect of hyper- and hypocapnia on cerebral arterial compliance in normal subjects.” J Neuroimaging 21(2):121-5 Details

    Carrera E, Kim DJ, Castellani G, Zweifel C, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ, Czosnyka M (2011), “Cerebral arterial compliance in patients with internal carotid artery disease.” Eur J Neurol 18(5):711-8 Details

    Carrera E, Steiner LA, Castellani G, Smielewski P, Zweifel C, Haubrich C, Pickard JD, Menon DK, Czosnyka M (2011), “Changes in Cerebral Compartmental Compliances during Mild Hypocapnia in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.” J Neurotrauma 28(6):889-96 Details

    Diedler J, Zweifel C, Budohoski KP, Kasprowicz M, Sorrentino E, Haubrich C, Brady KM, Czosnyka M, Pickard JD, Smielewski P (2011), “The limitations of near-infrared spectroscopy to assess cerebrovascular reactivity: the role of slow frequency oscillations.” Anesth Analg 113(4):849-57 Details

    Haubrich C, Steiner L, Kasprowicz M, Diedler J, Carrera E, Diehl RR, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M (2011), “Short-Term Moderate Hypocapnia Augments Detection of Optimal Cerebral Perfusion Pressure.” J Neurotrauma Details

    Lee JK, Brady KM, Mytar JO, Kibler KK, Carter EL, Hirsch KG, Hogue CW, Easley RB, Jordan LC, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Shaffner DH, Koehler RC (2011), “Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular autoregulation in a swine model of pediatric cardiac arrest and hypothermia.” Crit Care Med Details

    Radolovich DK, Aries MJ, Castellani G, Corona A, Lavinio A, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2011), “Pulsatile intracranial pressure and cerebral autoregulation after traumatic brain injury.” Neurocrit Care 15(3):379-86 Details

    Sorrentino E, Budohoski KP, Kasprowicz M, Smielewski P, Matta B, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2011), “Critical thresholds for transcranial Doppler indices of cerebral autoregulation in traumatic brain injury.” Neurocrit Care 14(2):188-93 Details

    Timofeev I, Carpenter KL, Nortje J, Al-Rawi PG, O'Connell MT, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Menon DK, Kirkpatrick PJ, Gupta AK, Hutchinson PJ (2011), “Cerebral extracellular chemistry and outcome following traumatic brain injury: a microdialysis study of 223 patients.” Brain 134(Pt 2):484-94 Details

    2010

    Brady K, Joshi B, Zweifel C, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Easley RB, Hogue CW Jr (2010), “Real-time continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.” Stroke 41(9):1951-6 Details

    Brady KM, Mytar JO, Kibler KK, Hogue CW Jr, Lee JK, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Easley RB (2010), “Noninvasive autoregulation monitoring with and without intracranial pressure in the naive piglet brain.” Anesth Analg 111(1):191-5 Details

    Carrera E, Kim DJ, Castellani G, Zweifel C, Czosnyka Z, Kasparowicz M, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2010), “What shapes pulse amplitude of intracranial pressure?” J Neurotrauma 27(2):317-24 Details

    Joshi B, Brady K, Lee J, Easley B, Panigrahi R, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Hogue CW Jr (2010), “Impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow during rewarming from hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and its potential association with stroke.” Anesth Analg 110(2):321-8 Details

    Kasprowicz M, Schmidt E, Kim DJ, Haubrich C, Czosnyka Z, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M (2010), “Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure.” Physiol Meas 31(9):1217-28 Details

    Kim DJ, Carrera E, Czosnyka M, Keong N, Smielewski P, Balédent O, Sutcliffe MP, Pickard JD, Czosnyka Z (2010), “Cerebrospinal compensation of pulsating cerebral blood volume in hydrocephalus.” Neurol Res 32(6):587-92 Details

    Radolovich DK, Czosnyka M, Timofeev I, Lavinio A, Kim DJ, Jaeger M, Hutchinson P, Gupta A, Pickard JD, Smielewski P (2010), “Transient changes in brain tissue oxygen in response to modifications of cerebral perfusion pressure: an observational study.” Anesth Analg 110(1):165-73 Details

    Weerakkody RA, Czosnyka M, Zweifel C, Castellani G, Smielewski P, Keong N, Haubrich C, Pickard J, Czosnyka Z (2010), “Slow vasogenic fluctuations of intracranial pressure and cerebral near infrared spectroscopy--an observational study.” Acta Neurochir (Wien) 152(10):1763-9 Details

    Zweifel C, Castellani G, Czosnyka M, Helmy A, Manktelow A, Carrera E, Brady KM, Hutchinson PJ, Menon DK, Pickard JD, Smielewski P (2010), “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients.” J Neurotrauma 27(11):1951-8 Details

    Zweifel C, Czosnyka M, Lavinio A, Castellani G, Kim DJ, Carrera E, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ, Smielewski P (2010), “A comparison study of cerebral autoregulation assessed with transcranial Doppler and cortical laser Doppler flowmetry.” Neurol Res 32(4):425-8 Details

    2009

    Brady KM, Lee JK, Kibler KK, Easley RB, Koehler RC, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Shaffner DH (2009), “The lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation is increased with elevated intracranial pressure.” Anesth Analg 108(4):1278-83 Details

    Brady KM, Shaffner DH, Lee JK, Easley RB, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Jallo GI, Guerguerian AM (2009), “Continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity after traumatic brain injury in children.” Pediatrics 124(6):e1205-12 Details

    Castellani G, Zweifel C, Kim DJ, Carrera E, Radolovich DK, Smielewski P, Hutchinson PJ, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2009), “Plateau waves in head injured patients requiring neurocritical care.” Neurocrit Care 11(2):143-50 Details

    Czosnyka M, Brady K, Reinhard M, Smielewski P, Steiner LA (2009), “Monitoring of cerebrovascular autoregulation: facts, myths, and missing links.” Neurocrit Care 10(3):373-86 Details

    Kim DJ, Czosnyka Z, Keong N, Radolovich DK, Smielewski P, Sutcliffe MP, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2009), “Index of cerebrospinal compensatory reserve in hydrocephalus.” Neurosurgery 64(3):494-501; discussion 501-2 Details

    Kim DJ, Kasprowicz M, Carrera E, Castellani G, Zweifel C, Lavinio A, Smielewski P, Sutcliffe MP, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2009), “The monitoring of relative changes in compartmental compliances of brain.” Physiol Meas 30(7):647-59 Details

    Lee JK, Kibler KK, Benni PB, Easley RB, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Koehler RC, Shaffner DH, Brady KM (2009), “Cerebrovascular reactivity measured by near-infrared spectroscopy.” Stroke 40(5):1820-6 Details

    López-Magaña JA, Richards HK, Radolovich DK, Kim DJ, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2009), “Critical closing pressure: comparison of three methods.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29(5):987-93 Details

    Petrella G, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Allin D, Guazzo EP, Pickard JD, Czosnyka ZH (2009), “In vivo assessment of hydrocephalus shunt.” Acta Neurol Scand 120(5):317-23 Details

    Radolovich DK, Czosnyka M, Timofeev I, Lavinio A, Hutchinson P, Gupta A, Pickard JD, Smielewski P (2009), “Reactivity of brain tissue oxygen to change in cerebral perfusion pressure in head injured patients.” Neurocrit Care 10(3):274-9 Details

    Santarius T, Kirkpatrick PJ, Ganesan D, Chia HL, Jalloh I, Smielewski P, Richards HK, Marcus H, Parker RA, Price SJ, Kirollos RW, Pickard JD, Hutchinson PJ (2009), “Use of drains versus no drains after burr-hole evacuation of chronic subdural haematoma: a randomised controlled trial.” Lancet 374(9695):1067-73 Details

    Steiner LA, Pfister D, Strebel SP, Radolovich D, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M (2009), “Near-infrared spectroscopy can monitor dynamic cerebral autoregulation in adults.” Neurocrit Care 10(1):122-8 Details

    2008

    Abate MG, Trivedi M, Fryer TD, Smielewski P, Chatfield DA, Williams GB, Aigbirhio F, Carpenter TA, Pickard JD, Menon DK, Coles JP (2008), “Early derangements in oxygen and glucose metabolism following head injury: the ischemic penumbra and pathophysiological heterogeneity.” Neurocrit Care 9(3):319-25 Details

    Czosnyka M, Radolovich D, Balestreri M, Lavinio A, Hutchinson P, Timofeev I, Smielewski P, Pickard JD (2008), “Gender-related differences in intracranial hypertension and outcome after traumatic brain injury.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 102:25-8 Details

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Lavinio A, Pickard JD, Panerai R (2008), “An assessment of dynamic autoregulation from spontaneous fluctuations of cerebral blood flow velocity: a comparison of two models, index of autoregulation and mean flow index.” Anesth Analg 106(1):234-9, table of contents Details

    Czosnyka Z, Keong N, Kim DJ, Radolovich D, Smielewski P, Lavinio A, Schmidt EA, Momjian S, Owler B, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2008), “Pulse amplitude of intracranial pressure waveform in hydrocephalus.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 102:137-40 Details

    Lavinio A, Ene-Iordache B, Nodari I, Girardini A, Cagnazzi E, Rasulo F, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Latronico N (2008), “Cerebrovascular reactivity and autonomic drive following traumatic brain injury.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 102:3-7 Details

    Lavinio A, Harding S, Van Der Boogaard F, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Richards HK, Pickard JD, Czosnyka ZH (2008), “Magnetic field interactions in adjustable hydrocephalus shunts.” J Neurosurg Pediatr 2(3):222-8 Details

    Nortje J, Coles JP, Timofeev I, Fryer TD, Aigbirhio FI, Smielewski P, Outtrim JG, Chatfield DA, Pickard JD, Hutchinson PJ, Gupta AK, Menon DK (2008), “Effect of hyperoxia on regional oxygenation and metabolism after severe traumatic brain injury: preliminary findings.” Crit Care Med 36(1):273-81 Details

    Pfister D, Schmidt B, Smielewski P, Siegemund M, Strebel SP, Rüegg S, Marsch SC, Pargger H, Steiner LA (2008), “Intracranial pressure in patients with sepsis.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 102:71-5 Details

    Pfister D, Siegemund M, Dell-Kuster S, Smielewski P, Rüegg S, Strebel SP, Marsch SC, Pargger H, Steiner LA (2008), “Cerebral perfusion in sepsis-associated delirium.” Crit Care 12(3):R63 Details

    Timofeev I, Czosnyka M, Nortje J, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick P, Gupta A, Hutchinson P (2008), “Effect of decompressive craniectomy on intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal compensation following traumatic brain injury.” J Neurosurg 108(1):66-73 Details

    2007

    Brady KM, Lee JK, Kibler KK, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Easley RB, Koehler RC, Shaffner DH (2007), “Continuous time-domain analysis of cerebrovascular autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy.” Stroke 38(10):2818-25 Details

    Coles JP, Fryer TD, Coleman MR, Smielewski P, Gupta AK, Minhas PS, Aigbirhio F, Chatfield DA, Williams GB, Boniface S, Carpenter TA, Clark JC, Pickard JD, Menon DK (2007), “Hyperventilation following head injury: effect on ischemic burden and cerebral oxidative metabolism.” Crit Care Med 35(2):568-78 Details

    Czosnyka M, Czosnyka Z, Keong N, Lavinio A, Smielewski P, Momjian S, Schmidt EA, Petrella G, Owler B, Pickard JD (2007), “Pulse pressure waveform in hydrocephalus: what it is and what it isn't.” Neurosurg Focus 22(4):E2 Details

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Timofeev I, Lavinio A, Guazzo E, Hutchinson P, Pickard JD (2007), “Intracranial pressure: more than a number.” Neurosurg Focus 22(5):E10 Details

    Eide PK, Czosnyka M, Sorteberg W, Pickard JD, Smielewski P (2007), “Association between intracranial, arterial pulse pressure amplitudes and cerebral autoregulation in head injury patients.” Neurol Res 29(6):578-82 Details

    Eklund A, Smielewski P, Chambers I, Alperin N, Malm J, Czosnyka M, Marmarou A (2007), “Assessment of cerebrospinal fluid outflow resistance.” Med Biol Eng Comput 45(8):719-35 Details

    Haubrich C, Czosnyka Z, Lavinio A, Smielewski P, Diehl RR, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2007), “Is there a direct link between cerebrovascular activity and cerebrospinal fluid pressure-volume compensation?” Stroke 38(10):2677-80 Details

    Lavinio A, Timofeev I, Nortje J, Outtrim J, Smielewski P, Gupta A, Hutchinson PJ, Matta BF, Pickard JD, Menon D, Czosnyka M (2007), “Cerebrovascular reactivity during hypothermia and rewarming.” Br J Anaesth 99(2):237-44 Details

    Lewis PM, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2007), “Slow oscillations in middle cerebral artery cerebral blood flow velocity and aging.” Neurol Res 29(3):260-3 Details

    Lewis PM, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2007), “Dynamic cerebral autoregulation: should intracranial pressure be taken into account?” Acta Neurochir (Wien) 149(6):549-55; discussion 555 Details

    Newcombe VF, Williams GB, Nortje J, Bradley PG, Harding SG, Smielewski P, Coles JP, Maiya B, Gillard JH, Hutchinson PJ, Pickard JD, Carpenter TA, Menon DK (2007), “Analysis of acute traumatic axonal injury using diffusion tensor imaging.” Br J Neurosurg 21(4):340-8 Details

    2006

    Balestreri M, Czosnyka M, Hutchinson P, Steiner LA, Hiler M, Smielewski P, Pickard JD (2006), “Impact of intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure on severe disability and mortality after head injury.” Neurocrit Care 4(1):8-13 Details

    Coles JP, Fryer TD, Bradley PG, Nortje J, Smielewski P, Rice K, Clark JC, Pickard JD, Menon DK (2006), “Intersubject variability and reproducibility of 15O PET studies.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 26(1):48-57 Details

    Czosnyka M, Hutchinson PJ, Balestreri M, Hiler M, Smielewski P, Pickard JD (2006), “Monitoring and interpretation of intracranial pressure after head injury.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 96:114-8 Details

    Guendling K, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Lewis P, Nortje J, Timofeev I, Hutchinson PJ, Pickard JD (2006), “Use of ICM+ software for on-line analysis of intracranial and arterial pressures in head-injured patients.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 96:108-13 Details

    Hiler M, Czosnyka M, Hutchinson P, Balestreri M, Smielewski P, Matta B, Pickard JD (2006), “Predictive value of initial computerized tomography scan, intracranial pressure, and state of autoregulation in patients with traumatic brain injury.” J Neurosurg 104(5):731-7 Details

    2005

    Cunningham AS, Salvador R, Coles JP, Chatfield DA, Bradley PG, Johnston AJ, Steiner LA, Fryer TD, Aigbirhio FI, Smielewski P, Williams GB, Carpenter TA, Gillard JH, Pickard JD, Menon DK (2005), “Physiological thresholds for irreversible tissue damage in contusional regions following traumatic brain injury.” Brain 128(Pt 8):1931-42 Details

    Czosnyka M, Balestreri M, Steiner L, Smielewski P, Hutchinson PJ, Matta B, Pickard JD (2005), “Age, intracranial pressure, autoregulation, and outcome after brain trauma.” J Neurosurg 102(3):450-4 Details

    Czosnyka M, Steiner L, Balestreri M, Schmidt E, Smielewski P, Hutchinson PJ, Pickard JD (2005), “Concept of "true ICP" in monitoring and prognostication in head trauma.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 95:341-4 Details

    Czosnyka Z, Czosnyka M, Owler B, Momjian S, Kasprowicz M, Schmidt EA, Smielewski P, Pickard JD (2005), “Clinical testing of CSF circulation in hydrocephalus.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 95:247-51 Details

    Johnston AJ, Steiner LA, Coles JP, Chatfield DA, Fryer TD, Smielewski P, Hutchinson PJ, O'Connell MT, Al-Rawi PG, Aigbirihio FI, Clark JC, Pickard JD, Gupta AK, Menon DK (2005), “Effect of cerebral perfusion pressure augmentation on regional oxygenation and metabolism after head injury.” Crit Care Med 33(1):189-95; discussion 255-7 Details

    Kumar A, Schmidt EA, Hiler M, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2005), “Asymmetry of critical closing pressure following head injury.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76(11):1570-3 Details

    Pickard JD, Hutchinson PJ, Coles JP, Steiner LA, Johnston AJ, Fryer TD, Coleman MR, Smielewski P, Chatfield DA, Aigbirhio F, Williams GB, Rice K, Clark JC, Salmond CH, Sahakian BJ, Bradley PG, Carpenter TA, Salvador R, Pena A, Gillard JH, Cunningham AS, Piechnik S, Czosnyka M, Menon DK (2005), “Imaging of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in brain injury in the ICU.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 95:459-64 Details

    Steiner LA, Balestreri M, Johnston AJ, Coles JP, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Menon DK, Czosnyka M (2005), “Predicting the response of intracranial pressure to moderate hyperventilation.” Acta Neurochir (Wien) 147(5):477-83; discussion 483 Details

    2004

    Balestreri M, Czosnyka M, Chatfield DA, Steiner LA, Schmidt EA, Smielewski P, Matta B, Pickard JD (2004), “Predictive value of Glasgow Coma Scale after brain trauma: change in trend over the past ten years.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75(1):161-2 Details

    Balestreri M, Czosnyka M, Steiner LA, Schmidt E, Smielewski P, Matta B, Pickard JD (2004), “Intracranial hypertension: what additional information can be derived from ICP waveform after head injury?” Acta Neurochir (Wien) 146(2):131-41 Details

    Chen SF, Richards HK, Smielewski P, Johnström P, Salvador R, Pickard JD, Harris NG (2004), “Relationship between flow-metabolism uncoupling and evolving axonal injury after experimental traumatic brain injury.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24(9):1025-36 Details

    Coles JP, Fryer TD, Smielewski P, Chatfield DA, Steiner LA, Johnston AJ, Downey SP, Williams GB, Aigbirhio F, Hutchinson PJ, Rice K, Carpenter TA, Clark JC, Pickard JD, Menon DK (2004), “Incidence and mechanisms of cerebral ischemia in early clinical head injury.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24(2):202-11 Details

    Coles JP, Fryer TD, Smielewski P, Rice K, Clark JC, Pickard JD, Menon DK (2004), “Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24(2):191-201 Details

    Guadagno JV, Warburton EA, Aigbirhio FI, Smielewski P, Fryer TD, Harding S, Price CJ, Gillard JH, Carpenter TA, Baron JC (2004), “Does the acute diffusion-weighted imaging lesion represent penumbra as well as core? A combined quantitative PET/MRI voxel-based study.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24(11):1249-54 Details

    Menon DK, Coles JP, Gupta AK, Fryer TD, Smielewski P, Chatfield DA, Aigbirhio F, Skepper JN, Minhas PS, Hutchinson PJ, Carpenter TA, Clark JC, Pickard JD (2004), “Diffusion limited oxygen delivery following head injury.” Crit Care Med 32(6):1384-90 Details

    Minhas PS, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (2004), “Pressure autoregulation and positron emission tomography-derived cerebral blood flow acetazolamide reactivity in patients with carotid artery stenosis.” Neurosurgery 55(1):63-7; discussion 67-8 Details

    Owler BK, Momjian S, Czosnyka Z, Czosnyka M, Péna A, Harris NG, Smielewski P, Fryer T, Donovan T, Coles J, Carpenter A, Pickard JD (2004), “Normal pressure hydrocephalus and cerebral blood flow: a PET study of baseline values.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24(1):17-23 Details

    Owler BK, Pena A, Momjian S, Czosnyka Z, Czosnyka M, Harris NG, Smielewski P, Fryer T, Donvan T, Carpenter A, Pickard JD (2004), “Changes in cerebral blood flow during cerebrospinal fluid pressure manipulation in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus: a methodological study.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24(5):579-87 Details

    Steiner LA, Balestreri M, Johnston AJ, Czosnyka M, Coles JP, Chatfield DA, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Menon DK (2004), “Sustained moderate reductions in arterial CO2 after brain trauma time-course of cerebral blood flow velocity and intracranial pressure.” Intensive Care Med 30(12):2180-7 Details

    2003

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Czosnyka Z, Piechnik S, Steiner LA, Schmidt E, Gooskens I, Soehle M, Lang EW, Matta BF, Pickard JD (2003), “Continuous assessment of cerebral autoregulation: clinical and laboratory experience.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 86:581-5 Details

    Gooskens I, Schmidt EA, Czosnyka M, Piechnik SK, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD (2003), “Pressure-autoregulation, CO2 reactivity and asymmetry of haemodynamic parameters in patients with carotid artery stenotic disease. A clinical appraisal.” Acta Neurochir (Wien) 145(7):527-32; discussion 532 Details

    Kasprowicz M, Czosnyka M, Czosnyka Z, Momjian S, Smielewski P, Juniewicz H, Pickard JD (2003), “Hysteresis of the cerebrospinal pressure-volume curve in hydrocephalus.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 86:529-32 Details

    Minhas PS, Menon DK, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Kirkpatrick PJ, Clark JC, Pickard JD (2003), “Positron emission tomographic cerebral perfusion disturbances and transcranial Doppler findings among patients with neurological deterioration after subarachnoid hemorrhage.” Neurosurgery 52(5):1017-22; discussion 1022-4 Details

    Nestor PJ, Fryer TD, Smielewski P, Hodges JR (2003), “Limbic hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.” Ann Neurol 54(3):343-51 Details

    Schmidt EA, Czosnyka M, Steiner LA, Balestreri M, Smielewski P, Piechnik SK, Matta BF, Pickard JD (2003), “Asymmetry of pressure autoregulation after traumatic brain injury.” J Neurosurg 99(6):991-8 Details

    Schmidt EA, Piechnik SK, Smielewski P, Raabe A, Matta BF, Czosnyka M (2003), “Symmetry of cerebral hemodynamic indices derived from bilateral transcranial Doppler.” J Neuroimaging 13(3):248-54 Details

    Steiner LA, Coles JP, Czosnyka M, Minhas PS, Fryer TD, Aigbirhio FI, Clark JC, Smielewski P, Chatfield DA, Donovan T, Pickard JD, Menon DK (2003), “Cerebrovascular pressure reactivity is related to global cerebral oxygen metabolism after head injury.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74(6):765-70 Details

    Steiner LA, Coles JP, Johnston AJ, Chatfield DA, Smielewski P, Fryer TD, Aigbirhio FI, Clark JC, Pickard JD, Menon DK, Czosnyka M (2003), “Assessment of cerebrovascular autoregulation in head-injured patients: a validation study.” Stroke 34(10):2404-9 Details

    Steiner LA, Coles JP, Johnston AJ, Czosnyka M, Fryer TD, Smielewski P, Chatfield DA, Salvador R, Aigbirhio FI, Clark JC, Menon DK, Pickard JD (2003), “Responses of posttraumatic pericontusional cerebral blood flow and blood volume to an increase in cerebral perfusion pressure.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 23(11):1371-7 Details

    2002

    Coles JP, Minhas PS, Fryer TD, Smielewski P, Aigbirihio F, Donovan T, Downey SP, Williams G, Chatfield D, Matthews JC, Gupta AK, Carpenter TA, Clark JC, Pickard JD, Menon DK (2002), “Effect of hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow in traumatic head injury: clinical relevance and monitoring correlates.” Crit Care Med 30(9):1950-9 Details

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Piechnik S, Pickard JD (2002), “Clinical significance of cerebral autoregulation.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 81:117-9 Details

    Schmidt EA, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Piechnik SK, Pickard JD (2002), “Asymmetry of cerebral autoregulation following head injury.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 81:133-4 Details

    Smielewski P, Coles JP, Fryer TD, Minhas PS, Menon DK, Pickard JD (2002), “Integrated image analysis solutions for PET datasets in damaged brain.” J Clin Monit Comput 17(7-8):427-40 Details

    Steiner LA, Czosnyka M, Piechnik SK, Smielewski P, Chatfield D, Menon DK, Pickard JD (2002), “Continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity allows determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury.” Crit Care Med 30(4):733-8 Details

    2001

    Al-Rawi PG, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ (2001), “Evaluation of a near-infrared spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head.” Stroke 32(11):2492-500 Details

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Piechnik S, Steiner LA, Pickard JD (2001), “Cerebral autoregulation following head injury.” J Neurosurg 95(5):756-63 Details

    Turner CL, Tebbs S, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ (2001), “The influence of hemodynamic stress factors on intracranial aneurysm formation.” J Neurosurg 95(5):764-70 Details

    2000

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Piechnik S, Schmidt EA, Seeley H, al-Rawi P, Matta BF, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD (2000), “Continuous assessment of cerebral autoregulation--clinical verification of the method in head injured patients.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 76:483-4 Details

    Laing RJ, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Quaranta N, Moffat DA (2000), “A study of perioperative lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure in patients undergoing acoustic neuroma surgery.” Skull Base Surg 10(4):179-85 Details

    Lam JM, Smielewski P, al-Rawi P, Griffiths P, Yu AL, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ (2000), “Prediction of cerebral ischaemia during carotid endarterectomy with preoperative CO2-reactivity studies and angiography.” Br J Neurosurg 14(5):441-8 Details

    Lam JM, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ (2000), “Predicting delayed ischemic deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage using a transient hyperemic response test of cerebral autoregulation.” Neurosurgery 47(4):819-25; discussions 825-6 Details

    1999

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Piechnik S, Al-Rawi PG, Kirkpatrick PJ, Matta BF, Pickard JD (1999), “Critical closing pressure in cerebrovascular circulation.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 66(5):606-11 Details

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Piechnik S, Schmidt EA, Al-Rawi PG, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD (1999), “Hemodynamic characterization of intracranial pressure plateau waves in head-injury patients.” J Neurosurg 91(1):11-9 Details

    Piechnik SK, Yang X, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Fletcher SH, Jones AL, Pickard JD (1999), “The continuous assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity: a validation of the method in healthy volunteers.” Anesth Analg 89(4):944-9 Details

    1998

    al-Rawi PG, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ (1998), “Preliminary evaluation of a prototype spatially resolved spectrometer.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 71:255-7 Details

    Czosnyka M, Matta BF, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD (1998), “Cerebral perfusion pressure in head-injured patients: a noninvasive assessment using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.” J Neurosurg 88(5):802-8 Details

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick P, Piechnik S, Laing R, Pickard JD (1998), “Continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular pressure-reactivity in head injury.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 71:74-7 Details

    Kirkpatrick PJ, Lam J, Al-Rawi P, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M (1998), “Defining thresholds for critical ischemia by using near-infrared spectroscopy in the adult brain.” J Neurosurg 89(3):389-94 Details

    Kirkpatrick PJ, Smielewski P, Al-Rawi P, Czosnyka M (1998), “Resolving extra- and intracranial signal changes during adult near infrared spectroscopy.” Neurol Res 20 Suppl 1:S19-22 Details

    Minhas PS, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Kirkpatrick PJ (1998), “Preoperative carbon dioxide reactivity studies do not predict the hemodynamic changes seen during carotid endarterectomy after internal carotid artery clamping.” J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 7(1):44-51 Details

    Piechnik S, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Pickard JD (1998), “Indices for decreased cerebral blood flow control--a modelling study.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 71:269-71 Details

    Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick P (1998), “Assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with carotid artery disease using near-infrared spectroscopy.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 71:263-5 Details

    1997

    Czosnyka M, Piechnik S, Richards HK, Kirkpatrick P, Smielewski P, Pickard JD (1997), “Contribution of mathematical modelling to the interpretation of bedside tests of cerebrovascular autoregulation.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 63(6):721-31 Details

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick P, Laing RJ, Menon D, Pickard JD (1997), “Continuous assessment of the cerebral vasomotor reactivity in head injury.” Neurosurgery 41(1):11-7; discussion 17-9 Details

    Gupta AK, Menon DK, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Jones JG (1997), “Thresholds for hypoxic cerebral vasodilation in volunteers.” Anesth Analg 85(4):817-20 Details

    Gupta AK, Menon DK, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ, Jones JG (1997), “Non-invasive measurement of cerebral blood volume in volunteers.” Br J Anaesth 78(1):39-43 Details

    Lam JM, Smielewski P, al-Rawi P, Griffiths P, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ (1997), “Internal and external carotid contributions to near-infrared spectroscopy during carotid endarterectomy.” Stroke 28(5):906-11 Details

    Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Kirkpatrick P, Pickard JD (1997), “Evaluation of the transient hyperemic response test in head-injured patients.” J Neurosurg 86(5):773-8 Details

    Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick P (1997), “Clinical evaluation of near-infrared spectroscopy for testing cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with carotid artery disease.” Stroke 28(2):331-8 Details

    Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Zabolotny W, Kirkpatrick P, Richards H, Pickard JD (1997), “A computing system for the clinical and experimental investigation of cerebrovascular reactivity.” Int J Clin Monit Comput 14(3):185-98 Details

    1996

    Czosnyka M, Guazzo E, Whitehouse M, Smielewski P, Czosnyka Z, Kirkpatrick P, Piechnik S, Pickard JD (1996), “Significance of intracranial pressure waveform analysis after head injury.” Acta Neurochir (Wien) 138(5):531-41; discussion 541-2 Details

    Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick P, Menon DK, Pickard JD (1996), “Monitoring of cerebral autoregulation in head-injured patients.” Stroke 27(10):1829-34 Details

    Czosnyka M, Whitehouse H, Smielewski P, Simac S, Pickard JD (1996), “Testing of cerebrospinal compensatory reserve in shunted and non-shunted patients: a guide to interpretation based on an observational study.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 60(5):549-58 Details

    Kirkpatrick PJ, Smielewski P, Piechnik S, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (1996), “Early effects of mannitol in patients with head injuries assessed using bedside multimodality monitoring.” Neurosurgery 39(4):714-20; discussion 720-1 Details

    Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Kirkpatrick P, McEroy H, Rutkowska H, Pickard JD (1996), “Assessment of cerebral autoregulation using carotid artery compression.” Stroke 27(12):2197-203 Details

    Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ, Richards H, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (1996), “A feedback-controlled pump produces stable hypotension in anaesthetised rabbits.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 16(3):532-6 Details

    Whitfield PC, Moss H, O'Hare D, Smielewski P, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ (1996), “An audit of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: earlier resuscitation and surgery reduces inpatient stay and deaths from rebleeding.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 60(3):301-6 Details

    1995

    Kirkpatrick PJ, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Menon DK, Pickard JD (1995), “Near-infrared spectroscopy use in patients with head injury.” J Neurosurg 83(6):963-70 Details

    Kirkpatrick PJ, Smielewski P, Whitfield PC, Czosnyka M, Menon D, Pickard JD (1995), “An observational study of near-infrared spectroscopy during carotid endarterectomy.” J Neurosurg 82(5):756-63 Details

    Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Iyer V, Piechnik S, Whitehouse H, Pickard J (1995), “Computerised transient hyperaemic response test--a method for the assessment of cerebral autoregulation.” Ultrasound Med Biol 21(5):599-611 Details

    Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Roszkowski M, Walencik A (1995), “Identification of the cerebrospinal compensatory mechanisms via computer-controlled drainage of the cerebrospinal fluid.” Childs Nerv Syst 11(5):297-300 Details

    Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick P, Minhas P, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M (1995), “Can cerebrovascular reactivity be measured with near-infrared spectroscopy?” Stroke 26(12):2285-92 Details

    1994

    Czosnyka M, Guazzo E, Iyer V, Kirkpatrick P, Smielewski P, Whitehouse H, Pickard JD (1994), “Testing of cerebral autoregulation in head injury by waveform analysis of blood flow velocity and cerebral perfusion pressure.” Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 60:468-71 Details

    Czosnyka M, Whitehouse H, Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick P, Guazzo EP, Pickard JD (1994), “Computer supported multimodal bed-side monitoring for neuro intensive care.” Int J Clin Monit Comput 11(4):223-32 Details

    Kirkpatrick PJ, Meyer T, Sarkies N, Pickard JD, Whitehouse H, Smielewski P (1994), “Papilloedema and visual failure in a patient with nocturnal hypoventilation.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57(12):1546-7 Details

    Kirkpatrick PJ, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M, Pickard JD (1994), “Continuous monitoring of cortical perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry in ventilated patients with head injury.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57(11):1382-8 Details