Dr Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

University position

Programme Leader

Dr Nikolaus Kriegeskorte is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.


MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit



Home page


Research Themes

Systems and Computational Neuroscience

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience


- visual object recognition

- pattern-information analyses

- computational modelling

- functional magnetic resonance imaging

- species relationships

Relationship between human and monkey inferior temporal object spaces (multidimensional scaling)
Relationship between human and monkey inferior temporal object spaces (multidimensional scaling)
Click image to view full-size

Research Focus




computational modelling

population code

multivariate statistics

Clinical conditions



Behavioural analysis

Computational modelling

Field potential recording

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

neuronal recordings

Neuropsychological testing



John Duncan

Rik Henson

Zoe Kourtzi

Mate Lengyel

William Marslen-Wilson

Andrew Welchman

United Kingdom

Lars Muckli


Radoslaw Cichy

Joern Diedrichsen

Rainer Goebel

Kalanit Grill-Spector

Kendrick Kay

Associated News Items

Key publications

Henriksson L, Mur M, Kriegeskorte K (2015), “Faciotopy—A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area.” Cortex 72: 156-167 PDF

Kriegeskorte N (2015), “Deep neural networks: a new framework for modelling biological vision and brain information processing.” Annu Rev Vis Sci 1:417-46 PDF

Charest I, Kievit RA, Schmitz TW, Deca D, Kriegeskorte N (2014), “Unique semantic space in the brain of each beholder predicts perceived similarity.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(40):14565-70 Details

Khaligh-Razavi SM, Kriegeskorte N (2014), “Deep supervised, but not unsupervised, models may explain IT cortical representation.” PLoS Comput Biol 10(11):e1003915 Details

Nili H, Wingfield C, Walther A, Su L, Marslen-Wilson W, Kriegeskorte N (2014), “A toolbox for representational similarity analysis.” PLoS Comput Biol 10(4):e1003553 Details

Carlson T, Tovar DA, Alink A, Kriegeskorte N (2013), “Representational dynamics of object vision: the first 1000 ms.” J Vis 13(10) Details

Kriegeskorte N, Kievit RA (2013), “Representational geometry: integrating cognition, computation, and the brain.” Trends Cogn Sci 17(8):401-12 Details

Kriegeskorte N (2012), “Open evaluation: a vision for entirely transparent post-publication peer review and rating for science.” Front Comput Neurosci 6:79 Details

Kriegeskorte N, Kreiman G (2011), “Visual Population Codes - Toward a Common Multivariate Framework for Cell Recording and Functional Imaging ” (Eds) MIT Press

Kriegeskorte N, Simmons WK, Bellgowan PS, Baker CI (2009), “Circular analysis in systems neuroscience: the dangers of double dipping.” Nat Neurosci 12(5):535-40 Details

Kriegeskorte N, Mur M, Bandettini P (2008), “Representational similarity analysis - connecting the branches of systems neuroscience.” Front Syst Neurosci 2:4 Details

Kriegeskorte N, Mur M, Ruff DA, Kiani R, Bodurka J, Esteky H, Tanaka K, Bandettini PA (2008), “Matching categorical object representations in inferior temporal cortex of man and monkey.” Neuron 60(6):1126-41 Details

Kriegeskorte N, Goebel R, Bandettini P (2006), “Information-based functional brain mapping.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(10):3863-8 Details



Alink A., Walther A., Krugliak A, van den Bosch J, Kriegeskorte N (2015), “Mind the drift - improving sensitivity to fMRI pattern information by accounting for temporal pattern drift.” BioRxiv doi:10.1101/032391

Carlin J, Kriegeskorte N (2015), “Ramp coding with population averaging predicts human cortical face-space representations and perception.” BioRxiv doi:10.1101/029603

Charest A., Kriegeskorte N (2015), “The brain of the beholder: honouring individual representational idiosyncrasies.” Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 30(4): 367-379

Henriksson L, Khaligh-Razavi SM, Kay K, Kriegeskorte N (2015), “Visual representations are dominated by intrinsic fluctuations correlated between areas.” Neuroimage 114:275-86 Details

Jackson MC, Linden DE, Roberts MV, Kriegeskorte N, Haenschel C (2015), “Similarity, Not Complexity, Determines Visual Working Memory Performance.” J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn Details

Jozwik K, Kriegeskorte N, Mur M (2015), “Visual features as stepping stones toward semantics: Explaining object similarity in IT and perception with non-negative least squares.” Neuropsychologia PDF

Kriegeskorte N (2015), “Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli.” BioRxiv doi:10.1101/016436

Kriegeskorte N (2015), “Crossvalidation in brain imaging analysis.” BioRxiv doi: 10.1101/017418

McClure P, Kriegeskorte N (2015), “Representational Distance Learning for Deep Neural Networks.” arXiv doi: 1511.03979

Wardle S, Kriegeskorte N, Khaligh-Razavi S-M, Carlson T (2015), “Perceptual similarity of visual patterns predicts the similarity of their dynamic neural activation patterns measured with MEG.” arXiv doi:1506.02208

Wimber M, Alink A, Charest I, Kriegeskorte N, Anderson MC (2015), “Retrieval induces adaptive forgetting of competing memories via cortical pattern suppression.” Nat Neurosci 18(4):582-9 Details


Carlson TA, Ritchie JB, Kriegeskorte N, Durvasula S, Ma J (2014), “Reaction time for object categorization is predicted by representational distance.” J Cogn Neurosci 26(1):132-42 Details

Carlson TA, Simmons RA, Kriegeskorte N, Slevc LR (2014), “The emergence of semantic meaning in the ventral temporal pathway.” J Cogn Neurosci 26(1):120-31 Details

Chikazoe J, Lee DH, Kriegeskorte N, Anderson AK (2014), “Population coding of affect across stimuli, modalities and individuals.” Nat Neurosci Details

Mur M, Kriegeskorte N (2014), “What's there, distinctly, when and where?” Nat Neurosci 17(3):332-3 Details


Alink A, Krugliak A, Walther A, Kriegeskorte N (2013), “fMRI orientation decoding in V1 does not require global maps or globally coherent orientation stimuli.” Front Psychol 4:493 Details

Carlson TA, Ritchie JB, Kriegeskorte N, Durvasula S, Ma J (2013), “Reaction time for object categorization is predicted by representational distance ” Cognitive Neuroscience 26(1):132-42

Giordano BL, McAdams S, Zatorre RJ, Kriegeskorte N, Belin P (2013), “Abstract encoding of auditory objects in cortical activity patterns.” Cereb Cortex 23(9):2025-37 Details

Henriksson L, Khaligh-Razavi S.M, Kriegeskorte N (2013), “Population-code representations of natural images across human visual areas ” Journal of Vision 13 (9): 1035-1035

Kriegeskorte N, Mur M, Henriksson L (2013), “Face perception: Neural mechanisms Faciotopy – a face-feature map with face-like topology in the occipital face area” Journal of Vision 13(9): 1112.

Krishnan A, Kriegeskorte N, Abdi H (2013), “Distance-based partial least squares analysis ” New perspectives in Partial Least Squares and Related Methods 131-145

Liu N, Kriegeskorte N, Mur M, Hadj-Bouziane F, Luh WM, Tootell RB, Ungerleider LG (2013), “Intrinsic structure of visual exemplar and category representations in macaque brain.” J Neurosci 33(28):11346-60 Details

Mur M, Meys M, Bodurka J, Goebel R, Bandettini PA, Kriegeskorte N (2013), “Human Object-Similarity Judgments Reflect and Transcend the Primate-IT Object Representation.” Front Psychol 4:128 Details

Pathway Carlson TA, Simmons RA, Kriegeskorte N, Slevc LR (2013), “The Emergence of Semantic Meaning in the Ventral Temporal Pathway ” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 26(1):120-31

Staresina BP, Alink A, Kriegeskorte N, Henson RN (2013), “Awake reactivation predicts memory in humans.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(52):21159-64 Details

Zhang J, Kriegeskorte N, Carlin JD, Rowe JB (2013), “Choosing the rules: distinct and overlapping frontoparietal representations of task rules for perceptual decisions.” J Neurosci 33(29):11852-62 Details


Alink A, Euler F, Kriegeskorte N, Singer W, Kohler A (2012), “Auditory motion direction encoding in auditory cortex and high-level visual cortex.” Hum Brain Mapp 33(4):969-78 Details

Carlin JD, Rowe JB, Kriegeskorte N, Thompson R, Calder AJ (2012), “Direction-sensitive codes for observed head turns in human superior temporal sulcus.” Cereb Cortex 22(4):735-44 Details

Formisano E, Kriegeskorte N (2012), “Seeing patterns through the hemodynamic veil--the future of pattern-information fMRI.” Neuroimage 62(2):1249-56 Details

Kriegeskorte N, Mur M (2012), “Inverse MDS: Inferring Dissimilarity Structure from Multiple Item Arrangements.” Front Psychol 3:245 Details

Kriegeskorte N, Walther A, Deca D (2012), “An emerging consensus for open evaluation: 18 visions for the future of scientific publishing.” Front Comput Neurosci 6:94 Details

Mur M, Ruff DA, Bodurka J, De Weerd P, Bandettini PA, Kriegeskorte N (2012), “Categorical, yet graded--single-image activation profiles of human category-selective cortical regions.” J Neurosci 32(25):8649-62 Details

Staresina BP, Henson RN, Kriegeskorte N, Alink A (2012), “Episodic reinstatement in the medial temporal lobe.” J Neurosci 32(50):18150-6 Details


Carlin JD, Calder AJ, Kriegeskorte N, Nili H, Rowe JB (2011), “A head view-invariant representation of gaze direction in anterior superior temporal sulcus.” Curr Biol 21(21):1817-21 Details

Chu C, Mourão-Miranda J, Chiu YC, Kriegeskorte N, Tan G, Ashburner J (2011), “Utilizing temporal information in fMRI decoding: classifier using kernel regression methods.” Neuroimage 58(2):560-71 Details

Kriegeskorte N (2011), “Pattern-information analysis: from stimulus decoding to computational-model testing.” Neuroimage 56(2):411-21 Details


Kravitz DJ, Kriegeskorte N, Baker CI (2010), “High-level visual object representations are constrained by position.” Cereb Cortex 20(12):2916-25 Details

Kriegeskorte N (2010), “Interpreting brain images – reflections on an adolescent field” Trends in Cognitive Sciences (book review) 14(11):475-476

Kriegeskorte N, Cusack R, Bandettini P (2010), “How does an fMRI voxel sample the neuronal activity pattern: compact-kernel or complex spatiotemporal filter?” Neuroimage 49(3):1965-76 Details

Kriegeskorte N, Lindquist MA, Nichols TE, Poldrack RA, Vul E (2010), “Everything you never wanted to know about circular analysis, but were afraid to ask.” J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30(9):1551-7 Details

Misaki M, Kim Y, Bandettini PA, Kriegeskorte N (2010), “Comparison of multivariate classifiers and response normalizations for pattern-information fMRI.” Neuroimage 53(1):103-18 Details

Mur M, Ruff DA, Bodurka J, Bandettini PA, Kriegeskorte N (2010), “Face-identity change activation outside the face system: "release from adaptation" may not always indicate neuronal selectivity.” Cereb Cortex 20(9):2027-42 Details

Raizada RDS, Kriegeskorte N (2010), “Pattern-information fMRI: new questions which it opens up, and challenges which face it ” International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology 20(1):31-41


Kriegeskorte N (2009), “Relating Population-Code Representations between Man, Monkey, and Computational Models.” Front Neurosci 3(3):363-73 Details

Mur M, Bandettini PA, Kriegeskorte N (2009), “Revealing representational content with pattern-information fMRI--an introductory guide.” Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 4(1):101-9 Details


Carvalho FM, Kriegeskorte N (2008), “The arrow of time: how does the brain represent natural temporal structure?” J Neurosci 28(32):7933-5 Details

Kriegeskorte N, Bodurka J, Bandettini PA (2008), “Artifactual time course correlations in echo-planar fMRI with implications for studies of brain function ” International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology 18(5-6), 345-349


Goebel R, Kriegeskorte N. (2007), “Funktionelle Bildgebung in der Kognitionsforschung” Chapter in Eimer M, Goschke T (Eds.): Enzyklopädie der Psychologie: Kognition - Band 5. Hogrefe.

Kriegeskorte N, Bandettini P (2007), “Combining the tools: activation- and information-based fMRI analysis.” Neuroimage 38(4):666-8 Details

Kriegeskorte N, Bandettini P (2007), “Analyzing for information, not activation, to exploit high-resolution fMRI.” Neuroimage 38(4):649-62 Details

Kriegeskorte N, Formisano E, Sorger B, Goebel R (2007), “Individual faces elicit distinct response patterns in human anterior temporal cortex.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(51):20600-5 Details

Krueger F, McCabe K, Moll J, Kriegeskorte N, Zahn R, Strenziok M, Heinecke A, Grafman J (2007), “Neural correlates of trust.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(50):20084-9 Details


Kriegeskorte N, Bandettini P (2006), “The neuroscientific exploitation of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging.” Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 1:21-4 Details


Goebel R, Kriegeskorte N (2005), “Funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie” Chapter in Henrik Walter (Ed.): Funktionelle Bildgebung in Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie. Schattauer, Stuttgart, New York.

Goebel R, Kriegeskorte N (2005), “Datenanalyse für funktionell bildgebende Verfahren” Chapter in Henrik Walter (Ed.): Funktionelle Bildgebung in Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie. Schattauer, Stuttgart, New York.

Muckli L, Kohler A, Kriegeskorte N, Singer W (2005), “Primary visual cortex activity along the apparent-motion trace reflects illusory perception.” PLoS Biol 3(8):e265 Details


Kriegeskorte, N (2004), “Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human object-vision system ” PhD Thesis. Universiteit Maastricht.


Kriegeskorte N, Sorger B, Naumer M, Schwarzbach J, van den Boogert E, Hussy W, Goebel R (2003), “Human cortical object recognition from a visual motion flowfield.” J Neurosci 23(4):1451-63 Details

Linden DE, Bittner RA, Muckli L, Waltz JA, Kriegeskorte N, Goebel R, Singer W, Munk MH (2003), “Cortical capacity constraints for visual working memory: dissociation of fMRI load effects in a fronto-parietal network.” Neuroimage 20(3):1518-30 Details


Formisano E, Esposito F, Kriegeskorte N, Tedeschi G, Di Salle F, Goebel R (2002), “Spatial independent component analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging time-series: characterization of the cortical components ” Neurocomputing 49: 241-254

Muckli L, Kriegeskorte N, Lanfermann H, Zanella FE, Singer W, Goebel R (2002), “Apparent motion: event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging of perceptual switches and States.” J Neurosci 22(9):RC219 Details


Kriegeskorte N, Goebel R (2001), “An efficient algorithm for topologically correct segmentation of the cortical sheet in anatomical MR volumes ” Neuroimage 14(2): 329-46

Kriegeskorte N, Goebel R (2001), “An efficient algorithm for topologically correct segmentation of the cortical sheet in anatomical mr volumes.” Neuroimage 14(2):329-46 Details