As a child and adolescent psychiatrist, my clinical interests are in autism spectrum conditions (ASC), psychosis risk syndrome, gender issues and sexual identity development. My research focuses on elucidating the heterogeneity of ASC at multiple levels. Particular interests are on sex differences within ASC and how sex/gender interacts with ASC. I also study social attitude and stereotype formation in people with ASC.

I am a member of the MRC Autism Imaging Multicentre Study Consortium and have initiated a parallel project investigating females with autism. I also work on a collaborative imaging/genetic study on Taiwanese children and adolescents with ASC and ADHD at the National Taiwan University Hospital.

Brain regional volume covariance matrix for adults with autism spectrum conditions
Brain regional volume covariance matrix for adults with autism spectrum conditions
Click image to view full-size

Research Focus


Autism spectrum conditions

Neural connectivity

Gender / sex

Complex science and network analysis

Social cognition

Clinical conditions

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder


Childhood disorders

Depressive disorders

Gender dysphoria


Sexual identity development

Tourette's syndrome


Behavioural analysis

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Neuropsychological testing



Ed Bullmore

Bhismadev Chakrabarti

Michael Lombardo

John Suckling

Sally Wheelwright

United Kingdom

Christine Ecker Web:


Susan Shur-Fen Gau Web:

Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng Web:

Key publications

Lai M, Lombardo MV, Auyeung B, Chakrabarti B, Baron-Cohen S (2015), “Sex/Gender Differences and Autism: Setting the Scene for Future Research.” J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 54(1):11-24 Details

Baron-Cohen S, Cassidy S, Auyeung B, Allison C, Achoukhi M, Robertson S, Pohl A, Lai MC (2014), “Attenuation of Typical Sex Differences in 800 Adults with Autism vs. 3,900 Controls.” PLoS One 9(7):e102251 Details

Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Baron-Cohen S (2014), “Autism.” Lancet 383(9920):896-910 Details

Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Ecker C, Chakrabarti B, Suckling J, Bullmore ET, Happé F, MRC AIMS Consortium, Murphy DG, Baron-Cohen S (2014), “Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism.” Cereb Cortex Details

Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Chakrabarti B, Baron-Cohen S (2013), “Subgrouping the Autism "Spectrum": Reflections on DSM-5.” PLoS Biol 11(4):e1001544 Details

Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Suckling J, Ruigrok AN, Chakrabarti B, Ecker C, Deoni SC, Craig MC, Murphy DG, Bullmore ET, MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen S (2013), “Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism.” Brain 136(Pt 9):2799-815 Details

Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Chakrabarti B, Ecker C, Sadek SA, Wheelwright SJ, Murphy DG, Suckling J, Bullmore ET, MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen S (2012), “Individual differences in brain structure underpin empathizing-systemizing cognitive styles in male adults.” Neuroimage 61(4):1347-54 Details

Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Ruigrok AN, Chakrabarti B, Wheelwright SJ, Auyeung B, Allison C, MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen S (2012), “Cognition in males and females with autism: similarities and differences.” PLoS One 7(10):e47198 Details

Lin YJ, Lai MC, Gau SS (2012), “Youths with ADHD with and without tic disorders: Comorbid psychopathology, executive function and social adjustment.” Res Dev Disabil 33(3):951-963 Details

Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Pasco G, Ruigrok AN, Wheelwright SJ, Sadek SA, Chakrabarti B, MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen S (2011), “A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.” PLoS One 6(6):e20835 Details

Liu CC, Lai MC, Liu CM, Chiu YN, Hsieh MH, Hwang TJ, Chien YL, Chen WJ, Hua MS, Hsiung PC, Huang YC, Hwu HG (2011), “Follow-up of subjects with suspected pre-psychotic state in Taiwan.” Schizophr Res 126(1-3):65-70 Details

Lai MC, Chiu YN, Gadow KD, Gau SS, Hwu HG (2010), “Correlates of gender dysphoria in Taiwanese university students.” Arch Sex Behav 39(6):1415-28 Details

Lai MC, Gau SS (2010), “The autism spectrum (in Chinese)” Formosan Journal of Medicine 14(4): 401-411

Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Chakrabarti B, Sadek SA, Pasco G, Wheelwright SJ, Bullmore ET, Baron-Cohen S, MRC AIMS Consortium, Suckling J (2010), “A shift to randomness of brain oscillations in people with autism.” Biol Psychiatry 68(12):1092-9 Details



Chien HY, Lin HY, Lai MC, Gau SS, Tseng WY (2015), “Hyperconnectivity of the Right Posterior Temporo-parietal Junction Predicts Social Difficulties in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder.” Autism Res Details


Holt RJ, Chura LR, Lai MC, Suckling J, von dem Hagen E, Calder AJ, Bullmore ET, Baron-Cohen S, Spencer MD (2014), “'Reading the Mind in the Eyes': an fMRI study of adolescents with autism and their siblings.” Psychol Med 44(15):3215-27 Details

Pironti VA, Lai MC, Müller U, Dodds CM, Suckling J, Bullmore ET, Sahakian BJ (2014), “Neuroanatomical abnormalities and cognitive impairments are shared by adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives.” Biol Psychiatry 76(8):639-47 Details

Ruigrok AN, Salimi-Khorshidi G, Lai MC, Baron-Cohen S, Lombardo MV, Tait RJ, Suckling J (2014), “A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev 39C:34-50 Details

Suckling J, Henty J, Ecker C, Deoni SC, Lombardo MV, Baron-Cohen S, Jezzard P, Barnes A, Chakrabarti B, Ooi C, Lai MC, Williams SC, Murphy DG, Bullmore E, MRC AIMS Consortium (2014), “Are power calculations useful? A multicentre neuroimaging study.” Hum Brain Mapp 35(8):3569-77 Details

Wilson CE, Happé F, Wheelwright SJ, Ecker C, Lombardo MV, Johnston P, Daly E, Murphy CM, Spain D, Lai MC, Chakrabarti B, Sauter DA, MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen S, Murphy DG (2014), “The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.” Autism Res 7(5):568-81 Details


Ecker C, Ginestet C, Feng Y, Johnston P, Lombardo MV, Lai MC, Suckling J, Palaniyappan L, Daly E, Murphy CM, Williams SC, Bullmore ET, Baron-Cohen S, Brammer M, Murphy DG, MRC AIMS Consortium (2013), “Brain surface anatomy in adults with autism: the relationship between surface area, cortical thickness, and autistic symptoms.” JAMA Psychiatry 70(1):59-70 Details

Ecker C, Ronan L, Feng Y, Daly E, Murphy C, Ginestet CE, Brammer M, Fletcher PC, Bullmore ET, Suckling J, Baron-Cohen S, Williams S, Loth E, MRC AIMS Consortium, Murphy DG (2013), “Intrinsic gray-matter connectivity of the brain in adults with autism spectrum disorder.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(32):13222-7 Details


Beacher FD, Minati L, Baron-Cohen S, Lombardo MV, Lai MC, Gray MA, Harrison NA, Critchley HD (2012), “Autism attenuates sex differences in brain structure: a combined voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.” AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 33(1):83-9 Details

Beacher FD, Radulescu E, Minati L, Baron-Cohen S, Lombardo MV, Lai MC, Walker A, Howard D, Gray MA, Harrison NA, Critchley HD (2012), “Sex Differences and Autism: Brain Function during Verbal Fluency and Mental Rotation.” PLoS One 7(6):e38355 Details

Ecker C, Suckling J, Deoni SC, Lombardo MV, Bullmore ET, Baron-Cohen S, Catani M, Jezzard P, Barnes A, Bailey AJ, Williams SC, Murphy DG, MRC AIMS Consortium (2012), “Brain anatomy and its relationship to behavior in adults with autism spectrum disorder: a multicenter magnetic resonance imaging study.” Arch Gen Psychiatry 69(2):195-209 Details

Lombardo MV, Ashwin E, Auyeung B, Chakrabarti B, Lai MC, Taylor K, Hackett G, Bullmore ET, Baron-Cohen S (2012), “Fetal programming effects of testosterone on the reward system and behavioral approach tendencies in humans.” Biol Psychiatry 72(10):839-47 Details

Lombardo MV, Chakrabarti B, Lai MC, Baron-Cohen S (2012), “Self-referential and social cognition in a case of autism and agenesis of the corpus callosum.” Mol Autism 3(1):14 Details


Gau SS, Lee CM, Lai MC, Chiu YN, Huang YF, Kao JD, Wu YY (2011), “Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Social Communication Questionnaire” Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 5:809-818

Lo YC, Soong WT, Gau SS, Wu YY, Lai MC, Yeh FC, Chiang WY, Kuo LW, Jaw FS, Tseng WY (2011), “The loss of asymmetry and reduced interhemispheric connectivity in adolescents with autism: a study using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography.” Psychiatry Res 192(1):60-6 Details


Liu CC, Chang LR, Tseng HH, Lai MC, Hwu HG (2010), “Differential propensity in recognition of prepsychotic phenomena among psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and school counsellors.” Early Interv Psychiatry 4(4):275-82 Details

Liu CC, Hwu HG, Chiu YN, Lai MC, Tseng HH (2010), “Creating a platform to bridge service and research for early psychosis.” J Formos Med Assoc 109(7):543-9 Details

Liu CC, Sheu YH, Wu SY, Lai MC, Hwu HG (2010), “Rapid response to antipsychotic treatment on psychotic prodrome: implications from a case series.” Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 64(2):202-6 Details


Gau SS, Lai MC, Chiu YN, Liu CT, Lee MB, Hwu HG (2009), “Individual and family correlates for cigarette smoking among Taiwanese college students.” Compr Psychiatry 50(3):276-85 Details