Dr Luke Clark

Luke  Clark

University position

Senior Lecturer

Dr Luke Clark is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.


Department of Psychology


Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute



Home page

http://www.large.psychol.cam.ac.uk/directo... (personal home page)

Research Themes

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience

Clinical and Veterinary Neuroscience


My research is directed at the broad interface between psychological disorders and cognitive neuroscience, with a particular focus on the brain mechanisms underlying gambling decisions. Gambling is a popular recreational activity that can also become excessive in some people. Indeed, problem gambling shares a number of characteristics with substance use disorders, and may be usefully considered a 'behavioural addiction'. Using a combination of behavioural testing, psychophysiology and functional MRI, my lab has been studying how various features of gambling games (e.g. near-miss outcomes) influence choice and outcome processing during gambling. We work with the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London to study these effects in problem gamblers. In other convergent research, we also study the effects of brain injury on decision-making, and the effects of various pharmacological agents on these processes.

Research Focus




mood disorders



Clinical conditions


Bipolar disorder

Depressive disorders

Problem Gambling



Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Neuropsychological testing




Mike Aitken

Ed Bullmore

Barney Dunn

Ulrich Muller

Trevor Robbins

Barbara Sahakian

United Kingdom

Henrietta Bowden-Jones Web: http://www1.imperial.ac.uk/medicin...

Anne Lingford-Hughes Web: http://www1.imperial.ac.uk/departm...

Robert Rogers Web: http://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/directo...


Antoine Bechara Web: http://psychology.usc.edu/faculty...

Joel Billieux Web: http://www.affective-sciences.org/user/88

Roshan Cools Web: http://www.ru.nl/fcdonde...

Anneke Goudriaan Web: http://www.aiar.nl/

Nils Landro Web: http://www.sv.uio.no/psi/eng...

Katalin Szanto Web: http://www.wpic.pitt.edu/faculty...

Associated News Items

    Key publications

    Clark L, Averbeck B, Payer D, Sescousse G, Winstanley CA, Xue G (2013), “Pathological choice: the neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction.” J Neurosci 33(45):17617-23 Details

    Studer B, Manes F, Humphreys G, Robbins TW, Clark L (2013), “Risk-Sensitive Decision-Making in Patients with Posterior Parietal and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Injury.” Cereb Cortex Details

    Clark L, Stokes PR, Wu K, Michalczuk R, Benecke A, Watson BJ, Egerton A, Piccini P, Nutt DJ, Bowden-Jones H, Lingford-Hughes AR (2012), “Striatal dopamine D₂/D₃ receptor binding in pathological gambling is correlated with mood-related impulsivity.” Neuroimage 63(1):40-6 Details

    Michalczuk R, Bowden-Jones H, Verdejo-Garcia A, Clark L (2011), “Impulsivity and cognitive distortions in pathological gamblers attending the UK National Problem Gambling Clinic: a preliminary report.” Psychol Med 41(12):2625-35 Details



    Carmona-Perera M, Clark L, Young L, Pérez-García M, Verdejo-García A (2014), “Impaired decoding of fear and disgust predicts utilitarian moral judgment in alcohol-dependent individuals.” Alcohol Clin Exp Res 38(1):179-85 Details

    Clark L, Studer B, Bruss J, Tranel D, Bechara A (2014), “Damage to insula abolishes cognitive distortions during simulated gambling.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(16):6098-103 Details

    Eisenegger C, Naef M, Linssen A, Clark L, Gandamaneni PK, Müller U, Robbins TW (2014), “Role of Dopamine D2 Receptors in Human Reinforcement Learning.” Neuropsychopharmacology Details

    Mick I, Myers J, Stokes PR, Erritzoe D, Colasanti A, Bowden-Jones H, Clark L, Gunn RN, Rabiner EA, Searle GE, Waldman AD, Parkin MC, Brailsford AD, Nutt DJ, Lingford-Hughes AR (2014), “Amphetamine induced endogenous opioid release in the human brain detected with [11C]carfentanil PET: replication in an independent cohort.” Int J Neuropsychopharmacol :1-6 Details

    Sharman S, Dreyer J, Aitken M, Clark L, Bowden-Jones H (2014), “Rates of Problematic Gambling in a British Homeless Sample: A Preliminary Study.” J Gambl Stud Details

    Szanto K, Clark L, Hallquist M, Vanyukov P, Crockett M, Dombrovski AY (2014), “The cost of social punishment and high-lethality suicide attempts in the second half of life.” Psychol Aging 29(1):84-94 Details

    van Holst RJ, Clark L, Veltman DJ, van den Brink W, Goudriaan AE (2014), “Enhanced striatal responses during expectancy coding in alcohol dependence.” Drug Alcohol Depend Details


    Bernacer J, Corlett PR, Ramachandra P, McFarlane B, Turner DC, Clark L, Robbins TW, Fletcher PC, Murray GK (2013), “Methamphetamine-induced disruption of frontostriatal reward learning signals: relation to psychotic symptoms.” Am J Psychiatry 170(11):1326-34 Details

    Bourne C, Aydemir Ö, Balanzá-Martínez V, Bora E, Brissos S, Cavanagh JT, Clark L, Cubukcuoglu Z, Dias VV, Dittmann S, Ferrier IN, Fleck DE, Frangou S, Gallagher P, Jones L, Kieseppä T, Martínez-Aran A, Melle I, Moore PB, Mur M, Pfennig A, Raust A, Senturk V, Simonsen C, Smith DJ, Bio DS, Soeiro-de-Souza MG, Stoddart SD, Sundet K, Szöke A, Thompson JM, Torrent C, Zalla T, Craddock N, Andreassen OA, Leboyer M, Vieta E, Bauer M, Worhunsky PD, Tzagarakis C, Rogers RD, Geddes JR, Goodwin GM (2013), “Neuropsychological testing of cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar disorder: an individual patient data meta-analysis.” Acta Psychiatr Scand 128(3):149-62 Details

    Clark L, Limbrick-Oldfield EH (2013), “Disordered gambling: a behavioral addiction.” Curr Opin Neurobiol Details

    Clark L, Liu R, McKavanagh R, Garrett A, Dunn BD, Aitken MRF (2013), “Learning from near-miss outcomes in simulated gambling” J Behav Dec Making

    Crockett MJ, Apergis-Schoute A, Herrmann B, Lieberman MD, Müller U, Robbins TW, Clark L (2013), “Serotonin modulates striatal responses to fairness and retaliation in humans.” J Neurosci 33(8):3505-13 Details

    Crockett MJ, Braams BR, Clark L, Tobler PN, Robbins TW, Kalenscher T (2013), “Restricting temptations: neural mechanisms of precommitment.” Neuron 79(2):391-401 Details

    Dombrovski AY, Szanto K, Clark L, Reynolds CF, Siegle GJ (2013), “Reward Signals, Attempted Suicide, and Impulsivity in Late-Life Depression.” JAMA Psychiatry Details

    Gujral S, Dombrovski AY, Butters M, Clark L, Reynolds CF 3rd, Szanto K (2013), “Impaired Executive Function in Contemplated and Attempted Suicide in Late Life.” Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Details

    Huddy VC, Clark L, Harrison I, Ron MA, Moutoussis M, Barnes TR, Joyce EM (2013), “Reflection impulsivity and response inhibition in first-episode psychosis: relationship to cannabis use.” Psychol Med :1-11 Details

    Huddy VC, Clark L, Harrison I, Ron MA, Moutoussis M, Barnes TR, Joyce EM (2013), “Multifaceted impairments of impulsivity in cannabis users? A reply.” Psychol Med 43(10):2238-9 Details

    Huddy VC, Clark L, Harrison I, Ron MA, Moutoussis M, Barnes TR, Joyce EM (2013), “Letter to the Editor Multifaceted impairments of impulsivity in cannabis users? - a reply.” Psychol Med :1 Details

    Limbrick-Oldfield EH, van Holst RJ, Clark L (2013), “Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: Consistent inconsistencies?” Neuroimage Clin 2:385-93 Details

    Porchet RI, Boekhoudt L, Studer B, Gandamaneni PK, Rani N, Binnamangala S, Müller U, Clark L (2013), “Opioidergic and dopaminergic manipulation of gambling tendencies: a preliminary study in male recreational gamblers.” Front Behav Neurosci 7:138 Details

    Stankovic A, Fairchild G, Aitken MR, Clark L (2013), “Effects of psychosocial stress on psychophysiological activity during risky decision-making in male adolescents.” Int J Psychophysiol Details


    Albein-Urios N, Martinez-González JM, Lozano O, Clark L, Verdejo-García A (2012), “Comparison of impulsivity and working memory in cocaine addiction and pathological gambling: Implications for cocaine-induced neurotoxicity.” Drug Alcohol Depend 126(1-2):1-6 Details

    Billieux J, Van der Linden M, Khazaal Y, Zullino D, Clark L (2012), “Trait gambling cognitions predict near-miss experiences and persistence in laboratory slot machine gambling.” Br J Psychol 103(3):412-27 Details

    Clark L, Li R, Wright CM, Rome F, Fairchild G, Dunn BD, Aitken MR (2012), “Risk-avoidant decision making increased by threat of electric shock.” Psychophysiology 49(10):1436-43 Details

    Crockett MJ, Clark L, Apergis-Schoute AM, Morein-Zamir S, Robbins TW (2012), “Serotonin modulates the effects of Pavlovian aversive predictions on response vigor.” Neuropsychopharmacology 37(10):2244-52 Details

    Crockett MJ, Clark L, Smillie LD, Robbins TW (2012), “The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on costly information sampling: impulsivity or aversive processing?” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 219(2):587-97 Details

    Dombrovski AY, Siegle GJ, Szanto K, Clark L, Reynolds CF, Aizenstein H (2012), “The temptation of suicide: striatal gray matter, discounting of delayed rewards, and suicide attempts in late-life depression.” Psychol Med 42(6):1203-15 Details

    Dunn BD, Evans D, Makarova D, White J, Clark L (2012), “Gut feelings and the reaction to perceived inequity: the interplay between bodily responses, regulation, and perception shapes the rejection of unfair offers on the ultimatum game.” Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 12(3):419-29 Details

    McGirr A, Dombrovski AY, Butters MA, Clark L, Szanto K (2012), “Deterministic learning and attempted suicide among older depressed individuals: cognitive assessment using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task.” J Psychiatr Res 46(2):226-32 Details

    Studer B, Apergis-Schoute AM, Robbins TW, Clark L (2012), “What are the Odds? The Neural Correlates of Active Choice during Gambling.” Front Neurosci 6:46 Details

    Szanto K, Dombrovski AY, Sahakian BJ, Mulsant BH, Houck PR, Reynolds CF 3rd, Clark L (2012), “Social emotion recognition, social functioning, and attempted suicide in late-life depression.” Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 20(3):257-65 Details

    Verdejo-Garcia A, Clark L, Dunn BD (2012), “The role of interoception in addiction: a critical review.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev 36(8):1857-69 Details


    Bowden-Jones H, Clark L (2011), “Pathological gambling: a neurobiological and clinical update.” Br J Psychiatry 199(2):87-9 Details

    Chase HW, Crockett MJ, Msetfi RM, Murphy RA, Clark L, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW (2011), “5-HT modulation by acute tryptophan depletion of human instrumental contingency judgements.” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 213(2-3):615-23 Details

    Clark L, Crooks B, Clarke R, Aitken MR, Dunn BD (2011), “Physiological Responses to Near-Miss Outcomes and Personal Control During Simulated Gambling.” J Gambl Stud Details

    Clark L, Dombrovski AY, Siegle GJ, Butters MA, Shollenberger CL, Sahakian BJ, Szanto K (2011), “Impairment in risk-sensitive decision-making in older suicide attempters with depression.” Psychol Aging Details

    Dombrovski AY, Szanto K, Siegle GJ, Wallace ML, Forman SD, Sahakian B, Reynolds CF 3rd, Clark L (2011), “Lethal Forethought: Delayed Reward Discounting Differentiates High- and Low-Lethality Suicide Attempts in Old Age.” Biol Psychiatry Details

    Passetti F, Clark L, Davis P, Mehta MA, White S, Checinski K, King M, Abou-Saleh M (2011), “Risky decision-making predicts short-term outcome of community but not residential treatment for opiate addiction. Implications for case management.” Drug Alcohol Depend Details

    Studer B, Clark L (2011), “Place your bets: psychophysiological correlates of decision-making under risk.” Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 11(2):144-58 Details


    Camille N, Pironti VA, Dodds CM, Aitken MR, Robbins TW, Clark L (2010), “Striatal sensitivity to personal responsibility in a regret-based decision-making task.” Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 10(4):460-9 Details

    Chase HW, Clark L (2010), “Gambling severity predicts midbrain response to near-miss outcomes.” J Neurosci 30(18):6180-7 Details

    Clark L (2010), “Decision-making during gambling: an integration of cognitive and psychobiological approaches.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365(1538):319-30 Details

    Crockett MJ, Clark L, Hauser MD, Robbins TW (2010), “Serotonin selectively influences moral judgment and behavior through effects on harm aversion.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(40):17433-8 Details

    Crockett MJ, Clark L, Lieberman MD, Tabibnia G, Robbins TW (2010), “Impulsive choice and altruistic punishment are correlated and increase in tandem with serotonin depletion.” Emotion 10(6):855-62 Details

    Dombrovski AY, Clark L, Siegle GJ, Butters MA, Ichikawa N, Sahakian BJ, Szanto K (2010), “Reward/Punishment Reversal Learning in Older Suicide Attempters.” Am J Psychiatry Details

    Dunn BD, Makarova D, Evans D, Clark L (2010), “"I'm worth more than that": trait positivity predicts increased rejection of unfair financial offers.” PLoS One 5(12):e15095 Details

    Maalouf FT, Klein C, Clark L, Sahakian BJ, Labarbara EJ, Versace A, Hassel S, Almeida JR, Phillips ML (2010), “Impaired sustained attention and executive dysfunction: bipolar disorder versus depression-specific markers of affective disorders.” Neuropsychologia 48(6):1862-8 Details

    Rogers RD, Moeller FG, Swann AC, Clark L (2010), “Recent research on impulsivity in individuals with drug use and mental health disorders: implications for alcoholism.” Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34(8):1319-33 Details

    Sargent PA, Rabiner EA, Bhagwagar Z, Clark L, Cowen P, Goodwin GM, Grasby PM (2010), “5-HT(1A) receptor binding in euthymic bipolar patients using positron emission tomography with [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635.” J Affect Disord 123(1-3):77-80 Details


    Clark L, Chamberlain SR, Sahakian BJ (2009), “Neurocognitive mechanisms in depression: implications for treatment.” Annu Rev Neurosci 32:57-74 Details

    Clark L, Lawrence AJ, Astley-Jones F, Gray N (2009), “Gambling near-misses enhance motivation to gamble and recruit win-related brain circuitry.” Neuron 61(3):481-90 Details

    Clark L, Roiser J, Robbins T, Sahakian B (2009), “Disrupted ;reflection' impulsivity in cannabis users but not current or former ecstasy users.” J Psychopharmacol 23(1):14-22 Details

    Clatworthy PL, Lewis SJ, Brichard L, Hong YT, Izquierdo D, Clark L, Cools R, Aigbirhio FI, Baron JC, Fryer TD, Robbins TW (2009), “Dopamine release in dissociable striatal subregions predicts the different effects of oral methylphenidate on reversal learning and spatial working memory.” J Neurosci 29(15):4690-6 Details

    Lawrence AJ, Luty J, Bogdan NA, Sahakian BJ, Clark L (2009), “Problem gamblers share deficits in impulsive decision-making with alcohol-dependent individuals.” Addiction 104(6):1006-15 Details

    Lawrence AJ, Luty J, Bogdan NA, Sahakian BJ, Clark L (2009), “Impulsivity and response inhibition in alcohol dependence and problem gambling.” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 207(1):163-72 Details

    Roiser JP, Cannon DM, Gandhi SK, Taylor Tavares J, Erickson K, Wood S, Klaver JM, Clark L, Zarate CA Jr, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC (2009), “Hot and cold cognition in unmedicated depressed subjects with bipolar disorder.” Bipolar Disord 11(2):178-89 Details


    Adida M, Clark L, Pomietto P, Kaladjian A, Besnier N, Azorin JM, Jeanningros R, Goodwin GM (2008), “Lack of insight may predict impaired decision making in manic patients.” Bipolar Disord 10(7):829-37 Details

    Chase HW, Clark L, Sahakian BJ, Bullmore ET, Robbins TW (2008), “Dissociable roles of prefrontal subregions in self-ordered working memory performance.” Neuropsychologia 46(11):2650-61 Details

    Clark L, Bechara A, Damasio H, Aitken MR, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW (2008), “Differential effects of insular and ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions on risky decision-making.” Brain 131(Pt 5):1311-22 Details

    Crockett MJ, Clark L, Tabibnia G, Lieberman MD, Robbins TW (2008), “Serotonin modulates behavioral reactions to unfairness.” Science 320(5884):1739 Details

    Devito EE, Blackwell AD, Clark L, Kent L, Dezsery AM, Turner DC, Aitken MR, Sahakian BJ (2008), “Methylphenidate improves response inhibition but not reflection-impulsivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).” Psychopharmacology (Berl) Details

    DeVito EE, Blackwell AD, Kent L, Ersche KD, Clark L, Salmond CH, Dezsery AM, Sahakian BJ (2008), “The effects of methylphenidate on decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.” Biol Psychiatry 64(7):636-9 Details

    Dombrovski AY, Butters MA, Reynolds CF 3rd, Houck PR, Clark L, Mazumdar S, Szanto K (2008), “Cognitive performance in suicidal depressed elderly: preliminary report.” Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 16(2):109-15 Details

    Lawrence A, Clark L, Labuzetta JN, Sahakian B, Vyakarnum S (2008), “The innovative brain.” Nature 456(7219):168-9 Details

    Murray GK, Corlett PR, Clark L, Pessiglione M, Blackwell AD, Honey G, Jones PB, Bullmore ET, Robbins TW, Fletcher PC (2008), “Substantia nigra/ventral tegmental reward prediction error disruption in psychosis.” Mol Psychiatry 13(3):239, 267-76 Details

    Passetti F, Clark L, Mehta MA, Joyce E, King M (2008), “Neuropsychological predictors of clinical outcome in opiate addiction.” Drug Alcohol Depend 94(1-3):82-91 Details

    Roca M, Torralva T, López P, Cetkovich M, Clark L, Manes F (2008), “Executive functions in pathologic gamblers selected in an ecologic setting.” Cogn Behav Neurol 21(1):1-4 Details

    Taylor Tavares JV, Clark L, Furey ML, Williams GB, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC (2008), “Neural basis of abnormal response to negative feedback in unmedicated mood disorders.” Neuroimage 42(3):1118-26 Details

    Verdejo-García A, Lawrence AJ, Clark L (2008), “Impulsivity as a vulnerability marker for substance-use disorders: review of findings from high-risk research, problem gamblers and genetic association studies.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32(4):777-810 Details


    Chase HW, Clark L, Myers CE, Gluck MA, Sahakian BJ, Bullmore ET, Robbins TW (2007), “The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in human discrimination learning.” Neuropsychologia Details

    Clark L, Blackwell AD, Aron AR, Turner DC, Dowson J, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2007), “Association between response inhibition and working memory in adult ADHD: a link to right frontal cortex pathology?” Biol Psychiatry 61(12):1395-401 Details

    Taylor Tavares JV, Clark L, Cannon DM, Erickson K, Drevets WC, Sahakian BJ (2007), “Distinct profiles of neurocognitive function in unmedicated unipolar depression and bipolar II depression.” Biol Psychiatry 62(8):917-24 Details

    Torralva T, Kipps CM, Hodges JR, Clark L, Bekinschtein T, Roca M, Calcagno ML, Manes F (2007), “The relationship between affective decision-making and theory of mind in the frontal variant of fronto-temporal dementia.” Neuropsychologia 45(2):342-9 Details


    Chamberlain SR, Müller U, Blackwell AD, Clark L, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2006), “Neurochemical modulation of response inhibition and probabilistic learning in humans.” Science 311(5762):861-3 Details

    Clark L, Robbins TW, Ersche KD, Sahakian BJ (2006), “Reflection impulsivity in current and former substance users.” Biol Psychiatry 60(5):515-22 Details

    Ersche KD, Clark L, London M, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2006), “Profile of executive and memory function associated with amphetamine and opiate dependence.” Neuropsychopharmacology 31(5):1036-47 Details

    Rahman S, Robbins TW, Hodges JR, Mehta MA, Nestor PJ, Clark L, Sahakian BJ (2006), “Methylphenidate ('Ritalin') can ameliorate abnormal risk-taking behavior in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia.” Neuropsychopharmacology 31(3):651-8 Details


    Clark L, Kempton MJ, Scarnà A, Grasby PM, Goodwin GM (2005), “Sustained attention-deficit confirmed in euthymic bipolar disorder but not in first-degree relatives of bipolar patients or euthymic unipolar depression.” Biol Psychiatry 57(2):183-7 Details

    Clark L, Roiser JP, Cools R, Rubinsztein DC, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW (2005), “Stop signal response inhibition is not modulated by tryptophan depletion or the serotonin transporter polymorphism in healthy volunteers: implications for the 5-HT theory of impulsivity.” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 182(4):570-8 Details

    Clark L, Sarna A, Goodwin GM (2005), “Impairment of executive function but not memory in first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar I disorder and in euthymic patients with unipolar depression.” Am J Psychiatry 162(10):1980-2 Details

    Clark L, Scarna A, Goodwin GM (2005), “Executive function but not memory is impaired in first-degree relatives of bipolar I patients and in euthymic unipolar depression” American Journal of Psychiatry 162:1980-1982

    Erickson K, Drevets WC, Clark L, Cannon DM, Bain EE, Zarate CA Jr, Charney DS, Sahakian BJ (2005), “Mood-congruent bias in affective go/no-go performance of unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder.” Am J Psychiatry 162(11):2171-3 Details


    Clark L, Cools R, Robbins TW (2004), “The neuropsychology of ventral prefrontal cortex: decision-making and reversal learning.” Brain Cogn 55(1):41-53 Details

    Clark L, Goodwin GM (2004), “State- and trait-related deficits in sustained attention in bipolar disorder.” Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 254(2):61-8 Details

    Cools R, Clark L, Robbins TW (2004), “Differential responses in human striatum and prefrontal cortex to changes in object and rule relevance.” J Neurosci 24(5):1129-35 Details

    Turner DC, Clark L, Dowson J, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2004), “Modafinil improves cognition and response inhibition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.” Biol Psychiatry 55(10):1031-40 Details

    Turner DC, Clark L, Pomarol-Clotet E, McKenna P, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2004), “Modafinil improves cognition and attentional set shifting in patients with chronic schizophrenia.” Neuropsychopharmacology 29(7):1363-73 Details


    Clark L, Manes F, Antoun N, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW (2003), “The contributions of lesion laterality and lesion volume to decision-making impairment following frontal lobe damage.” Neuropsychologia 41(11):1474-83 Details


    Clark L, Iversen SD, Goodwin GM (2002), “Sustained attention deficit in bipolar disorder.” Br J Psychiatry 180:313-9 Details

    Clark L, Robbins T (2002), “Decision-making deficits in drug addiction.” Trends Cogn Sci 6(9):361 Details

    Cools R, Clark L, Owen AM, Robbins TW (2002), “Defining the neural mechanisms of probabilistic reversal learning using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging.” J Neurosci 22(11):4563-7 Details

    Harmer CJ, Clark L, Grayson L, Goodwin GM (2002), “Sustained attention deficit in bipolar disorder is not a working memory impairment in disguise.” Neuropsychologia 40(9):1586-90 Details

    Manes F, Sahakian B, Clark L, Rogers R, Antoun N, Aitken M, Robbins T (2002), “Decision-making processes following damage to the prefrontal cortex.” Brain 125(Pt 3):624-39 Details


    Clark L, Iversen SD, Goodwin GM (2001), “A neuropsychological investigation of prefrontal cortex involvement in acute mania.” Am J Psychiatry 158(10):1605-11 Details

    Clark L, Iversen SD, Goodwin GM (2001), “The influence of positive and negative mood states on risk taking, verbal fluency, and salivary cortisol.” J Affect Disord 63(1-3):179-87 Details

    McTavish SF, McPherson MH, Harmer CJ, Clark L, Sharp T, Goodwin GM, Cowen PJ (2001), “Antidopaminergic effects of dietary tyrosine depletion in healthy subjects and patients with manic illness.” Br J Psychiatry 179:356-60 Details


    Clark L, McTavish SF, Harmer CJ, Mills KR, Cowen PJ, Goodwin GM (2000), “Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to right prefrontal cortex does not modulate the psychostimulant effects of amphetamine.” Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 3(4):297-302 Details