Professor William Harris

William Harris

University position

Head of Department

Professor William Harris is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.


Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience


Home page

Research Themes

Developmental Neuroscience

Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


Where does the nervous system come from in the embryo? How does it grow to the right size and shape? How do stem cells turn into more committed neuronal progenitors and how do these cells know when to leave the cycle and differentiate into neural and glial progenitors? Once born, how do these precursors differentiate? How do they choose a particular cell type to become amongst a myriad of possible fates, and by what cellular mechanisms do these cells become properly polarised, branched, and integrated into the retinal circuitry? What mechanisms allow retinal ganglion cells to send out long axons that forge pathways to their targets in the brain, and recognise specific cells within these targets? We use the visual systems of Xenopus and zebrafish to address such questions because of their embryological, molecular and genetic accessibility to experimentation, combined with the possibility of in vivo time-lapse imaging.

Par3:GFP fusion protein detaching with apical process in differentiating retinal cells
Par3:GFP fusion protein detaching with apical process in differentiating retinal cells
View image full-size (2940x3360 pixels)

Research Focus



visual system


cell determination

neural circuit

Clinical conditions

Birth defects


Genetic disorders

visual impairments


Cell culture

Confocal microscopy



Recombinant protein expression



Christine Holt


Monica Vetter Web:

Associated News Items

    Key publications

    Almeida AD, Boije H, Chow RW, He J, Tham J, Suzuki SC, Harris WA (2014), “Spectrum of Fates: a new approach to the study of the developing zebrafish retina.” Development 141(9):1971-80 Details

    Love NK, Keshavan N, Lewis R, Harris WA, Agathocleous M (2014), “A nutrient-sensitive restriction point is active during retinal progenitor cell differentiation.” Development 141(3):697-706 Details

    Randlett O, MacDonald RB, Yoshimatsu T, Almeida AD, Suzuki SC, Wong RO, Harris WA (2013), “Cellular requirements for building a retinal neuropil.” Cell Rep 3(2):282-90 Details

    Agathocleous M, Love NK, Randlett O, Harris JJ, Liu J, Murray AJ, Harris WA (2012), “Metabolic differentiation in the embryonic retina.” Nat Cell Biol 14(8):859-64 Details

    He J, Zhang G, Almeida AD, Cayouette M, Simons BD, Harris WA (2012), “How variable clones build an invariant retina.” Neuron 75(5):786-98 Details

    Jusuf PR, Albadri S, Paolini A, Currie PD, Argenton F, Higashijima S, Harris WA, Poggi L (2012), “Biasing amacrine subtypes in the Atoh7 lineage through expression of Barhl2.” J Neurosci 32(40):13929-44 Details

    Sanes DH, Reh TA, Harris WA (2012), “Development of the Nervous System (3rd ed)” Book

    Leung L, Klopper AV, Grill SW, Harris WA, Norden C (2011), “Apical migration of nuclei during G2 is a prerequisite for all nuclear motion in zebrafish neuroepithelia.” Development 138(22):5003-13 Details

    Randlett O, Poggi L, Zolessi FR, Harris WA (2011), “The oriented emergence of axons from retinal ganglion cells is directed by laminin contact in vivo.” Neuron 70(2):266-80 Details

    Agathocleous M, Harris WA (2009), “From progenitors to differentiated cells in the vertebrate retina.” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 25:45-69 Details

    Norden C, Young S, Link BA, Harris WA (2009), “Actomyosin is the main driver of interkinetic nuclear migration in the retina.” Cell 138(6):1195-208 Details



    Boije H, Macdonald RB, Harris WA (2014), “Reconciling competence and transcriptional hierarchies with stochasticity in retinal lineages.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 27C:68-74 Details


    Agathocleous M, Harris WA (2013), “Metabolism in physiological cell proliferation and differentiation.” Trends Cell Biol 23(10):484-92 Details

    Cayouette M, Mattar P, Harris WA (2013), “Progenitor competence: genes switching places.” Cell 152(1-2):13-4 Details

    Hörnberg H, Wollerton-van Horck F, Maurus D, Zwart M, Svoboda H, Harris WA, Holt CE (2013), “RNA-binding protein Hermes/RBPMS inversely affects synapse density and axon arbor formation in retinal ganglion cells in vivo.” J Neurosci 33(25):10384-95 Details

    Jusuf P, Harris WA, Poggi L (2013), “Imaging retinal progenitor lineages in developing zebrafish embryos.” Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2013(3) Details

    Jusuf P, Harris WA, Poggi L (2013), “Preparation of transgenic zebrafish embryos for imaging the developing retina.” Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2013(3) Details

    Leung LC, Urbančič V, Baudet ML, Dwivedy A, Bayley TG, Lee AC, Harris WA, Holt CE (2013), “Coupling of NF-protocadherin signaling to axon guidance by cue-induced translation.” Nat Neurosci 16(2):166-73 Details

    Lupo G, Novorol C, Smith JR, Vallier L, Miranda E, Alexander M, Biagioni S, Pedersen RA, Harris WA (2013), “Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures.” Open Biol 3(4):120167 Details

    Novorol C, Burkhardt J, Wood KJ, Iqbal A, Roque C, Coutts N, Almeida AD, He J, Wilkinson CJ, Harris WA (2013), “Microcephaly models in the developing zebrafish retinal neuroepithelium point to an underlying defect in metaphase progression.” Open Biol 3(10):130065 Details


    Harris WA (2012), “Yoshiki and KS222.” J Neurogenet 26(1):5-6 Details

    Kechad A, Jolicoeur C, Tufford A, Mattar P, Chow RW, Harris WA, Cayouette M (2012), “Numb is required for the production of terminal asymmetric cell divisions in the developing mouse retina.” J Neurosci 32(48):17197-210 Details

    Wong GK, Baudet ML, Norden C, Leung L, Harris WA (2012), “Slit1b-Robo3 signaling and N-cadherin regulate apical process retraction in developing retinal ganglion cells.” J Neurosci 32(1):223-8 Details


    Gomes FL, Zhang G, Carbonell F, Correa JA, Harris WA, Simons BD, Cayouette M (2011), “Reconstruction of rat retinal progenitor cell lineages in vitro reveals a surprising degree of stochasticity in cell fate decisions.” Development 138(2):227-35 Details

    Jusuf PR, Almeida AD, Randlett O, Joubin K, Poggi L, Harris WA (2011), “Origin and determination of inhibitory cell lineages in the vertebrate retina.” J Neurosci 31(7):2549-62 Details

    Jusuf PR, Almeida AD, Randlett O, Joubin K, Poggi L, Harris WA. (2011), “Origin and determination of inhibitory cell lineages in the vertebrate retina.” J Neurosci. 2011 Feb 16;31(7):2549-62.

    Lupo G, Gestri G, O'Brien M, Denton RM, Chandraratna RA, Ley SV, Harris WA, Wilson SW (2011), “Retinoic acid receptor signaling regulates choroid fissure closure through independent mechanisms in the ventral optic cup and periocular mesenchyme.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(21):8698-703 Details

    Randlett O, Norden C, Harris WA (2011), “The vertebrate retina: a model for neuronal polarization in vivo.” Dev Neurobiol 71(6):567-83 Details

    Xue XY, Harris WA (2011), “Using myc genes to search for stem cells in the ciliary margin of the Xenopus retina.” Dev Neurobiol Details


    Randlett O, Norden C, Harris WA (2010), “The vertebrate retina: A model for neuronal polarization in vivo.” Dev Neurobiol

    Randlett O, Norden C, Harris WA. (2010), “The vertebrate retina: A model for neuronal polarization in vivo.” Dev Neurobiol. 2010 Dec 7. [Epub ahead of print]


    Agathocleous M, Iordanova I, Willardsen MI, Xue XY, Vetter ML, Harris WA, Moore KB (2009), “A directional Wnt/beta-catenin-Sox2-proneural pathway regulates the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the Xenopus retina.” Development 136(19):3289-99 Details

    Jusuf PR, Harris WA (2009), “Ptf1a is expressed transiently in all types of amacrine cells in the embryonic zebrafish retina.” Neural Dev 4:34 Details

    Maurus D, Harris WA (2009), “Zic-associated holoprosencephaly: zebrafish Zic1 controls midline formation and forebrain patterning by regulating Nodal, Hedgehog, and retinoic acid signaling.” Genes Dev 23(12):1461-73 Details

    Seipold S, Priller FC, Goldsmith P, Harris WA, Baier H, Abdelilah-Seyfried S (2009), “Non-SMC condensin I complex proteins control chromosome segregation and survival of proliferating cells in the zebrafish neural retina.” BMC Dev Biol 9:40 Details

    Vitorino M, Jusuf PR, Maurus D, Kimura Y, Higashijima S, Harris WA (2009), “Vsx2 in the zebrafish retina: restricted lineages through derepression.” Neural Dev 4:14 Details

    Wilkinson CJ, Carl M, Harris WA (2009), “Cep70 and Cep131 contribute to ciliogenesis in zebrafish embryos.” BMC Cell Biol 10:17 Details


    Smith JR, Vallier L, Lupo G, Alexander M, Harris WA, Pedersen RA (2008), “Inhibition of Activin/Nodal signaling promotes specification of human embryonic stem cells into neuroectoderm.” Dev Biol 313(1):107-17 Details


    Agathocleous M, Locker M, Harris WA, Perron M (2007), “A general role of hedgehog in the regulation of proliferation.” Cell Cycle 6(2):156-9 Details


    Cayouette M, Poggi L, Harris WA (2006), “Lineage in the vertebrate retina.” Trends Neurosci 29(10):563-70 Details

    Kuriyama S, Lupo G, Ohta K, Ohnuma S, Harris WA, Tanaka H (2006), “Tsukushi controls ectodermal patterning and neural crest specification in Xenopus by direct regulation of BMP4 and X-delta-1 activity.” Development 133(1):75-88 Details

    Locker M, Agathocleous M, Amato MA, Parain K, Harris WA, Perron M (2006), “Hedgehog signaling and the retina: insights into the mechanisms controlling the proliferative properties of neural precursors.” Genes Dev 20(21):3036-48 Details

    Lupo G, Harris WA, Lewis KE (2006), “Mechanisms of ventral patterning in the vertebrate nervous system.” Nat Rev Neurosci 7(2):103-14 Details

    Skoglund P, Dzamba B, Coffman CR, Harris WA, Keller R (2006), “Xenopus fibrillin is expressed in the organizer and is the earliest component of matrix at the developing notochord-somite boundary.” Dev Dyn 235(7):1974-83 Details

    Viczian AS, Bang AG, Harris WA, Zuber ME (2006), “Expression of Xenopus laevis Lhx2 during eye development and evidence for divergent expression among vertebrates.” Dev Dyn 235(4):1133-41 Details

    Zolessi FR, Poggi L, Wilkinson CJ, Chien CB, Harris WA (2006), “Polarization and orientation of retinal ganglion cells in vivo.” Neural Dev 1:2 Details


    Brunet I, Weinl C, Piper M, Trembleau A, Volovitch M, Harris W, Prochiantz A, Holt C (2005), “The transcription factor Engrailed-2 guides retinal axons.” Nature 438(7064):94-8 Details

    Harris WA (2005), “Two of these or two of those?” Neuron 48(4):521-2 Details

    Lupo G, Liu Y, Qiu R, Chandraratna RA, Barsacchi G, He RQ, Harris WA (2005), “Dorsoventral patterning of the Xenopus eye: a collaboration of Retinoid, Hedgehog and FGF receptor signaling.” Development 132(7):1737-48 Details

    Piper M, Salih S, Weinl C, Holt CE, Harris WA (2005), “Endocytosis-dependent desensitization and protein synthesis-dependent resensitization in retinal growth cone adaptation.” Nat Neurosci 8(2):179-86 Details

    Poggi L, Vitorino M, Masai I, Harris WA (2005), “Influences on neural lineage and mode of division in the zebrafish retina in vivo.” J Cell Biol 171(6):991-9 Details

    Poggi L, Zolessi FR, Harris WA (2005), “Time-lapse analysis of retinal differentiation.” Curr Opin Cell Biol 17(6):676-81 Details

    Van Raay TJ, Moore KB, Iordanova I, Steele M, Jamrich M, Harris WA, Vetter ML (2005), “Frizzled 5 signaling governs the neural potential of progenitors in the developing Xenopus retina.” Neuron 46(1):23-36 Details

    Wang JC, Harris WA (2005), “The role of combinational coding by homeodomain and bHLH transcription factors in retinal cell fate specification.” Dev Biol 285(1):101-15 Details


    Darrow KO, Harris WA (2004), “Characterization and development of courtship in zebrafish, Danio rerio.” Zebrafish 1(1):40-5 Details

    Mann F, Harris WA, Holt CE (2004), “New views on retinal axon development: a navigation guide.” Int J Dev Biol 48(8-9):957-64 Details

    Ohta K, Lupo G, Kuriyama S, Keynes R, Holt CE, Harris WA, Tanaka H, Ohnuma S (2004), “Tsukushi functions as an organizer inducer by inhibition of BMP activity in cooperation with chordin.” Dev Cell 7(3):347-58 Details


    Das T, Payer B, Cayouette M, Harris WA (2003), “In vivo time-lapse imaging of cell divisions during neurogenesis in the developing zebrafish retina.” Neuron 37(4):597-609 Details

    Goldsmith P, Baier H, Harris WA (2003), “Two zebrafish mutants, ebony and ivory, uncover benefits of neighborhood on photoreceptor survival.” J Neurobiol 57(3):235-45 Details

    Goldsmith P, Harris WA (2003), “The zebrafish as a tool for understanding the biology of visual disorders.” Semin Cell Dev Biol 14(1):11-8 Details

    Harris WA (2003), “Specifying motor neurons: up and down and back to front.” Nat Neurosci 6(12):1247-9 Details

    Harris WA (2003), “Developmental biology: clocking the birth of neurons.” Nature 425(6958):568-9 Details

    Ohnuma S, Harris WA (2003), “Neurogenesis and the cell cycle.” Neuron 40(2):199-208 Details

    Perron M, Boy S, Amato MA, Viczian A, Koebernick K, Pieler T, Harris WA (2003), “A novel function for Hedgehog signalling in retinal pigment epithelium differentiation.” Development 130(8):1565-77 Details

    Steven C, Lehnen N, Kight K, Ijiri S, Klenke U, Harris WA, Zohar Y (2003), “Molecular characterization of the GnRH system in zebrafish (Danio rerio): cloning of chicken GnRH-II, adult brain expression patterns and pituitary content of salmon GnRH and chicken GnRH-II.” Gen Comp Endocrinol 133(1):27-37 Details

    Viczian AS, Vignali R, Zuber ME, Barsacchi G, Harris WA (2003), “XOtx5b and XOtx2 regulate photoreceptor and bipolar fates in the Xenopus retina.” Development 130(7):1281-94 Details

    Zuber ME, Gestri G, Viczian AS, Barsacchi G, Harris WA (2003), “Specification of the vertebrate eye by a network of eye field transcription factors.” Development 130(21):5155-67 Details


    Lupo G, Harris WA, Barsacchi G, Vignali R (2002), “Induction and patterning of the telencephalon in Xenopus laevis.” Development 129(23):5421-36 Details

    Ohnuma S, Hopper S, Wang KC, Philpott A, Harris WA (2002), “Co-ordinating retinal histogenesis: early cell cycle exit enhances early cell fate determination in the Xenopus retina.” Development 129(10):2435-46 Details

    Ohnuma S, Mann F, Boy S, Perron M, Harris WA (2002), “Lipofection strategy for the study of Xenopus retinal development.” Methods 28(4):411-9 Details


    Campbell DS, Regan AG, Lopez JS, Tannahill D, Harris WA, Holt CE (2001), “Semaphorin 3A elicits stage-dependent collapse, turning, and branching in Xenopus retinal growth cones.” J Neurosci 21(21):8538-47 Details

    Harris WA (2001), “Temporal coordinates: the genes that fix cell fate with birth order.” Dev Cell 1(3):313-4 Details

    Ohnuma S, Philpott A, Harris WA (2001), “Cell cycle and cell fate in the nervous system.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 11(1):66-73 Details

    Rapaport DH, Patheal SL, Harris WA (2001), “Cellular competence plays a role in photoreceptor differentiation in the developing Xenopus retina.” J Neurobiol 49(2):129-41 Details


    Dingwell KS, Holt CE, Harris WA (2000), “The multiple decisions made by growth cones of RGCs as they navigate from the retina to the tectum in Xenopus embryos.” J Neurobiol 44(2):246-59 Details

    Johnson KG, Harris WA (2000), “Connecting the eye with the brain: the formation of the retinotectal pathway.” Results Probl Cell Differ 31:157-77 Details

    Nakagawa S, Brennan C, Johnson KG, Shewan D, Harris WA, Holt CE (2000), “Ephrin-B regulates the Ipsilateral routing of retinal axons at the optic chiasm.” Neuron 25(3):599-610 Details

    Perron M, Harris WA (2000), “Determination of vertebrate retinal progenitor cell fate by the Notch pathway and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors.” Cell Mol Life Sci 57(2):215-23 Details

    Perron M, Harris WA (2000), “Retinal stem cells in vertebrates.” Bioessays 22(8):685-8 Details


    Harris WA, Holt CE (1999), “Neurobiology. Slit, the midline repellent.” Nature 398(6727):462-3 Details

    Nakagawa S, Harris WA (1999), “The metamorphosis antidote.” Neuron 24(4):763-4 Details

    Neuhauss SC, Biehlmaier O, Seeliger MW, Das T, Kohler K, Harris WA, Baier H (1999), “Genetic disorders of vision revealed by a behavioral screen of 400 essential loci in zebrafish.” J Neurosci 19(19):8603-15 Details

    Ohnuma S, Philpott A, Wang K, Holt CE, Harris WA (1999), “p27Xic1, a Cdk inhibitor, promotes the determination of glial cells in Xenopus retina.” Cell 99(5):499-510 Details

    Perron M, Opdecamp K, Butler K, Harris WA, Bellefroid EJ (1999), “X-ngnr-1 and Xath3 promote ectopic expression of sensory neuron markers in the neurula ectoderm and have distinct inducing properties in the retina.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(26):14996-5001 Details

    Ruchhoeft ML, Ohnuma S, McNeill L, Holt CE, Harris WA (1999), “The neuronal architecture of Xenopus retinal ganglion cells is sculpted by rho-family GTPases in vivo.” J Neurosci 19(19):8454-63 Details

    Zuber ME, Perron M, Philpott A, Bang A, Harris WA (1999), “Giant eyes in Xenopus laevis by overexpression of XOptx2.” Cell 98(3):341-52 Details


    Chang WS, Harris WA (1998), “Sequential genesis and determination of cone and rod photoreceptors in Xenopus.” J Neurobiol 35(3):227-44 Details

    Dawson EB, Ritter S, Harris WA, Evans DR, Powell LC (1998), “Comparison of sperm viability with seminal plasma metal levels.” Biol Trace Elem Res 64(1-3):215-9 Details

    Harris WA, Perron M (1998), “Molecular recapitulation: the growth of the vertebrate retina.” Int J Dev Biol 42(3):299-304 Details

    Holt CE, Harris WA (1998), “Target selection: invasion, mapping and cell choice.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 8(1):98-105 Details

    Marcus EA, Kintner C, Harris W (1998), “The role of GSK3beta in regulating neuronal differentiation in Xenopus laevis.” Mol Cell Neurosci 12(4-5):269-80 Details

    Olson EC, Schinder AF, Dantzker JL, Marcus EA, Spitzer NC, Harris WA (1998), “Properties of ectopic neurons induced by Xenopus neurogenin1 misexpression.” Mol Cell Neurosci 12(4-5):281-99 Details

    Perron M, Kanekar S, Vetter ML, Harris WA (1998), “The genetic sequence of retinal development in the ciliary margin of the Xenopus eye.” Dev Biol 199(2):185-200 Details

    Zhang LI, Tao HW, Holt CE, Harris WA, Poo M (1998), “A critical window for cooperation and competition among developing retinotectal synapses.” Nature 395(6697):37-44 Details


    Dorsky RI, Chang WS, Rapaport DH, Harris WA (1997), “Regulation of neuronal diversity in the Xenopus retina by Delta signalling.” Nature 385(6611):67-70 Details

    Harris WA (1997), “Cellular diversification in the vertebrate retina.” Curr Opin Genet Dev 7(5):651-8 Details

    Harris WA (1997), “Pax-6: where to be conserved is not conservative.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(6):2098-100 Details

    Hirsch N, Harris WA (1997), “Xenopus Brn-3.0, a POU-domain gene expressed in the developing retina and tectum. Not regulated by innervation.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 38(5):960-9 Details

    Hirsch N, Harris WA (1997), “Xenopus Pax-6 and retinal development.” J Neurobiol 32(1):45-61 Details

    Kanekar S, Perron M, Dorsky R, Harris WA, Jan LY, Jan YN, Vetter ML (1997), “Xath5 participates in a network of bHLH genes in the developing Xenopus retina.” Neuron 19(5):981-94 Details

    Ruchhoeft ML, Harris WA (1997), “Myosin functions in Xenopus retinal ganglion cell growth cone motility in vivo.” J Neurobiol 32(6):567-78 Details


    Chien CB, Harris WA (1996), “Signal transduction in vertebrate growth cones navigating in vivo.” Perspect Dev Neurobiol 4(2-3):253-66 Details

    Rétaux S, Harris WA (1996), “Engrailed and retinotectal topography.” Trends Neurosci 19(12):542-6 Details

    Rétaux S, McNeill L, Harris WA (1996), “Engrailed, retinotectal targeting, and axonal patterning in the midbrain during Xenopus development: an antisense study.” Neuron 16(1):63-75 Details


    Dorsky RI, Rapaport DH, Harris WA (1995), “Xotch inhibits cell differentiation in the Xenopus retina.” Neuron 14(3):487-96 Details

    Eagleson G, Ferreiro B, Harris WA (1995), “Fate of the anterior neural ridge and the morphogenesis of the Xenopus forebrain.” J Neurobiol 28(2):146-58 Details

    Harris WA, Holt CE (1995), “From tags to RAGS: chemoaffinity finally has receptors and ligands.” Neuron 15(2):241-4 Details

    Tannahill D, Bray S, Harris WA (1995), “A Drosophila E(spł) gene is "neurogenic" in Xenopus: a green fluorescent protein study.” Dev Biol 168(2):694-7 Details


    Chien CB, Harris WA (1994), “Axonal guidance from retina to tectum in embryonic Xenopus.” Curr Top Dev Biol 29:135-69 Details

    Ferreiro B, Harris WA (1994), “Neurogenesis in Xenopus: a molecular genetic perspective.” Adv Genet 31:29-78 Details

    Ferreiro B, Kintner C, Zimmerman K, Anderson D, Harris WA (1994), “XASH genes promote neurogenesis in Xenopus embryos.” Development 120(12):3649-55 Details


    Chien CB, Rosenthal DE, Harris WA, Holt CE (1993), “Navigational errors made by growth cones without filopodia in the embryonic Xenopus brain.” Neuron 11(2):237-51 Details

    Coffman CR, Skoglund P, Harris WA, Kintner CR (1993), “Expression of an extracellular deletion of Xotch diverts cell fate in Xenopus embryos.” Cell 73(4):659-71 Details

    Ferreiro B, Skoglund P, Bailey A, Dorsky R, Harris WA (1993), “XASH1, a Xenopus homolog of achaete-scute: a proneural gene in anterior regions of the vertebrate CNS.” Mech Dev 40(1-2):25-36 Details

    Harris WA (1993), “Lineage versus environment in the embryonic retina.” Trends Neurosci 16(3):96; author reply 98 Details

    Holt CE, Harris WA (1993), “Position, guidance, and mapping in the developing visual system.” J Neurobiol 24(10):1400-22 Details


    Harris WA, Messersmith SL (1992), “Two cellular inductions involved in photoreceptor determination in the Xenopus retina.” Neuron 9(2):357-72 Details


    Bixby JL, Harris WA (1991), “Molecular mechanisms of axon growth and guidance.” Annu Rev Cell Biol 7:117-59 Details

    Harris WA (1991), “Many cell types specified by Notch function.” Curr Biol 1(2):120-2 Details

    Harris WA, Hartenstein V (1991), “Neuronal determination without cell division in Xenopus embryos.” Neuron 6(4):499-515 Details

    Ranganathan R, Harris WA, Zuker CS (1991), “The molecular genetics of invertebrate phototransduction.” Trends Neurosci 14(11):486-93 Details


    Coffman C, Harris W, Kintner C (1990), “Xotch, the Xenopus homolog of Drosophila notch.” Science 249(4975):1438-41 Details

    Eagleson GW, Harris WA (1990), “Mapping of the presumptive brain regions in the neural plate of Xenopus laevis.” J Neurobiol 21(3):427-40 Details

    Harris WA (1990), “Neurometamorphosis.” J Neurobiol 21(7):953-7 Details

    Harris WA, Holt CE (1990), “Early events in the embryogenesis of the vertebrate visual system: cellular determination and pathfinding.” Annu Rev Neurosci 13:155-69 Details


    Harris WA (1989), “Local positional cues in the neuroepithelium guide retinal axons in embryonic Xenopus brain.” Nature 339(6221):218-21 Details

    Sakaguchi DS, Moeller JF, Coffman CR, Gallenson N, Harris WA (1989), “Growth cone interactions with a glial cell line from embryonic Xenopus retina.” Dev Biol 134(1):158-74 Details


    Feiler R, Harris WA, Kirschfeld K, Wehrhahn C, Zuker CS (1988), “Targeted misexpression of a Drosophila opsin gene leads to altered visual function.” Nature 333(6175):737-41 Details

    Harris WA (1988), “Neural differentiation: from message to mind.” Science 240(4849):229 Details

    Holt CE, Bertsch TW, Ellis HM, Harris WA (1988), “Cellular determination in the Xenopus retina is independent of lineage and birth date.” Neuron 1(1):15-26 Details

    Sakaguchi DS, Coffman CR, Gallenson N, Harris WA (1988), “A glial cell line promotes the outgrowth of neurites from embryonic Xenopus retina.” Acta Biol Hung 39(2-3):201-9 Details


    Harris WA, Holt CE, Bonhoeffer F (1987), “Retinal axons with and without their somata, growing to and arborizing in the tectum of Xenopus embryos: a time-lapse video study of single fibres in vivo.” Development 101(1):123-33 Details


    Harris WA (1986), “Homing behaviour of axons in the embryonic vertebrate brain.” Nature 320(6059):266-9 Details

    Stryker MP, Harris WA (1986), “Binocular impulse blockade prevents the formation of ocular dominance columns in cat visual cortex.” J Neurosci 6(8):2117-33 Details


    Harris WA (1985), “Genetics and development of the nervous system.” J Neurogenet 2(3):179-96 Details

    Harris WA, Holt CE, Smith TA, Gallenson N (1985), “Growth cones of developing retinal cells in vivo, on culture surfaces, and in collagen matrices.” J Neurosci Res 13(1-2):101-22 Details


    Harris WA (1984), “Axonal pathfinding in the absence of normal pathways and impulse activity.” J Neurosci 4(4):1153-62 Details

    Harris WA, Cole J (1984), “Common mechanisms in vertebrate axonal navigation: retinal transplants between distantly related amphibia.” J Neurogenet 1(2):127-40 Details


    Harris WA (1983), “Differences between embryos and adults in the plasticity of somatosensory afferents to the axolotl tectum.” Brain Res 283(2-3):245-55 Details

    Holt CE, Harris WA (1983), “Order in the initial retinotectal map in Xenopus: a new technique for labelling growing nerve fibres.” Nature 301(5896):150-2 Details


    Harris WA (1982), “The transplantation of eyes to genetically eyeless salamanders: visual projections and somatosensory interactions.” J Neurosci 2(3):339-53 Details


    Harris WA (1981), “Neural activity and development.” Annu Rev Physiol 43:689-710 Details


    Frank E, Harris WA, Kennedy MB (1980), “Lysophosphatidyl choline facilitates labeling of CNS projections with horseradish peroxidase.” J Neurosci Methods 2(2):183-9 Details

    Harris WA (1980), “Regions of the brain influencing the projection of developing optic tracts in the salamander.” J Comp Neurol 194(2):319-33 Details

    Harris WA (1980), “The effects of eliminating impulse activity on the development of the retinotectal projection in salamanders.” J Comp Neurol 194(2):303-17 Details


    Harris WA, Ready DF, Lipson ED, Hudspeth AJ, Stark WS (1977), “Vitamin A deprivation and Drosophila photopigments.” Nature 266(5603):648-50 Details

    Harris WA, Stark WS (1977), “Hereditary retinal degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. A mutant defect associated with the phototransduction process.” J Gen Physiol 69(3):261-91 Details


    Harris WA, Stark WS, Walker JA (1976), “Genetic dissection of the photoreceptor system in the compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster.” J Physiol 256(2):415-39 Details


    Quinn WG, Harris WA, Benzer S (1974), “Conditioned behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 71(3):708-12 Details


    Harris WA (1972), “The maxillae of Drosophila melanogaster as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.” J Morphol 138(4):451-6 Details