My research investigates the brain basis of particular neuropsychiatric symptoms - namely delusions, hallucinations and anhedonia. It's already known that brain systems involving the neurotransmitter dopamine are disturbed in psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia (and in Parkinson's Disease), but it isn't clear how these disturbances relate to the mental experience of patients. I believe that it is possible to explain delusions, hallucinations and anhedonia in terms of dopamine dysfunction via dopamine's known role in incentive salience (motivational importance), and I'm testing this theory with fMRI, computational neuroscience techniques, pharmacological and neuropsychological studies. This research relates to my clinical work at CAMEO, the Cambridge early psychosis service.

I'm also interested in cognitive developmental epidemiology & the relationship between cognitive and motor functions across the lifespan.

Differences between psychosis patients and controls in the relationship between reward prediction error and brain response in midbrain and ventral striatum (A and B), and in a wider network including the insula, cingulate and striatum (C). (D) shows midbrain parameter estimates
Differences between psychosis patients and controls in the relationship between reward prediction error (PE) and brain respone (A,B,D). (C) shows midbrain parameter estimates for patients (right) and controls (left): reward PE in blue, neutral PE in green.
Click image to view full-size

Research Focus






Incentive Salience

Clinical conditions

Bipolar disorder

Depressive disorders

Early psychosis

Parkinson's disease

Populations at high clinical risk for psychosis



Behavioural analysis

Computational modelling

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


Neuropsychological testing

Randomised control trials



Roger Barker

Luke Clark

Paul Fletcher

Peter Jones

Trevor Robbins


Nico Bunzeck Web:

Emrah Duzel Web:

Matti Isohanni Web:

Mathias Pessiglione Web:

Juha Veijola Web:

Thomas Weickert Web:

Key publications

Bernacer J, Corlett PR, Ramachandra P, McFarlane B, Turner DC, Clark L, Robbins TW, Fletcher PC, Murray GK (2013), “Methamphetamine-Induced Disruption of Frontostriatal Reward Learning Signals: Relation to Psychotic Symptoms.” Am J Psychiatry Details

Murray GK, Jones PB (2012), “Psychotic symptoms in young people without psychotic illness: mechanisms and meaning.” Br J Psychiatry 201(1):4-6 Details

Murray GK, Cheng F, Clark L, Barnett JH, Blackwell AD, Fletcher PC, Robbins TW, Bullmore ET, Jones PB (2008), “Reinforcement and reversal learning in first-episode psychosis.” Schizophr Bull 34(5):848-55 Details

Murray GK, Corlett PR, Clark L, Pessiglione M, Blackwell AD, Honey G, Jones PB, Bullmore ET, Robbins TW, Fletcher PC (2008), “Substantia nigra/ventral tegmental reward prediction error disruption in psychosis.” Mol Psychiatry 13(3):239, 267-76 Details



Husa AP, Rannikko I, Moilanen J, Haapea M, Murray GK, Barnett J, Jones PB, Isohanni M, Koponen H, Miettunen J, Jääskeläinen E (2014), “Lifetime use of antipsychotic medication and its relation to change of verbal learning and memory in midlife schizophrenia - An observational 9-year follow-up study.” Schizophr Res Details

Kobayashi H, Isohanni M, Jääskeläinen E, Miettunen J, Veijola J, Haapea M, Järvelin MR, Jones PB, Murray GK (2014), “Linking the Developmental and Degenerative Theories of Schizophrenia: Association Between Infant Development and Adult Cognitive Decline.” Schizophr Bull Details

Mäki P, Koskela S, Murray GK, Nordström T, Miettunen J, Jääskeläinen E, Veijola JM (2014), “Difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal as early signs of psychosis in adolescents - the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.” Eur Psychiatry Details

Roman-Urrestarazu A, Murray GK, Barnes A, Miettunen J, Jääskeläinen E, Mäki P, Nikkinen J, Remes J, Mukkala S, Koivukangas J, Heinimaa M, Moilanen I, Suckling J, Kiviniemi V, Jones PB, Veijola J (2014), “Brain structure in different psychosis risk groups in the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort.” Schizophr Res Details

Veijola J, Guo JY, Moilanen JS, Jääskeläinen E, Miettunen J, Kyllönen M, Haapea M, Huhtaniska S, Alaräisänen A, Mäki P, Kiviniemi V, Nikkinen J, Starck T, Remes JJ, Tanskanen P, Tervonen O, Wink AM, Kehagia A, Suckling J, Kobayashi H, Barnett JH, Barnes A, Koponen HJ, Jones PB, Isohanni M, Murray GK (2014), “Longitudinal changes in total brain volume in schizophrenia: relation to symptom severity, cognition and antipsychotic medication.” PLoS One 9(7):e101689 Details


Jääskeläinen E, Juola P, Kurtti J, Haapea M, Kyllönen M, Miettunen J, Tanskanen P, Murray GK, Huhtaniska S, Barnes A, Veijola J, Isohanni M (2013), “Associations between brain morphology and outcome in schizophrenia in a general population sample.” Eur Psychiatry Details

Jukuri T, Kiviniemi V, Nikkinen J, Miettunen J, Mäki P, Jääskeläinen E, Mukkala S, Koivukangas J, Nordström T, Taanila A, Moilanen I, Heinimaa M, Barnett JH, Jones PB, Murray GK, Veijola J (2013), “Default mode network in young people with familial risk for psychosis - The Oulu Brain and Mind Study.” Schizophr Res 143(2-3):239-45 Details

Miettunen J, Murray GK, Jones PB, Mäki P, Ebeling H, Taanila A, Joukamaa M, Savolainen J, Törmänen S, Järvelin MR, Veijola J, Moilanen I (2013), “Longitudinal associations between childhood and adulthood externalizing and internalizing psychopathology and adolescent substance use.” Psychol Med :1-12 Details

Mukkala S, Ilonen T, Koskela J, Nordström T, Loukkola J, Miettunen J, Barnett JH, Murray GK, Jones PB, Heinimaa M, Jääskeläinen E, Mäki P, Moilanen I, Veijola J (2013), “Response initiation in young adults at risk for psychosis in the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort.” Cogn Neuropsychiatry Details


Barnes A, Isohanni M, Barnett JH, Pietiläinen O, Veijola J, Miettunen J, Paunio T, Tanskanen P, Ridler K, Suckling J, Bullmore ET, Jones PB, Murray GK (2012), “Neuregulin-1 genotype is associated with structural differences in the normal human brain.” Neuroimage 59(3):2057-61 Details

Barnes A, Isohanni M, Barnett JH, Pietiläinen O, Veijola J, Miettunen J, Paunio T, Tanskanen P, Ridler K, Suckling J, Bullmore ET, Murray GK, Jones PB (2012), “No Association of COMT (Val158Met) Genotype with Brain Structure Differences between Men and Women.” PLoS One 7(3):e33964 Details

Morrison AP, French P, Stewart SL, Birchwood M, Fowler D, Gumley AI, Jones PB, Bentall RP, Lewis SW, Murray GK, Patterson P, Brunet K, Conroy J, Parker S, Reilly T, Byrne R, Davies LM, Dunn G (2012), “Early detection and intervention evaluation for people at risk of psychosis: multisite randomised controlled trial.” BMJ 344:e2233 Details

Rannikko I, Paavola L, Haapea M, Huhtaniska S, Miettunen J, Veijola J, Murray GK, Barnes A, Wahlberg KE, Isohanni M, Jääskeläinen E (2012), “Verbal learning and memory and their associations with brain morphology and illness course in schizophrenia spectrum psychoses.” J Clin Exp Neuropsychol Details

Veijola J, Mäki P, Jääskeläinen E, Koivukangas J, Moilanen I, Taanila A, Nordström T, Hurtig T, Kiviniemi V, Mukkala S, Heinimaa M, Lindholm P, Jones PB, Barnett JH, Murray GK, Miettunen J (2012), “Young people at risk for psychosis: case finding and sample characteristics of the Oulu Brain and Mind Study.” Early Interv Psychiatry Details


Cheng F, Kirkbride JB, Lennox BR, Perez J, Masson K, Lawrence K, Hill K, Feeley L, Painter M, Murray GK, Gallagher O, Bullmore ET, Jones PB (2011), “Administrative incidence of psychosis assessed in an early intervention service in England: first epidemiological evidence from a diverse, rural and urban setting.” Psychol Med 41(5):949-58 Details

Morrison AP, Stewart SL, French P, Bentall RP, Birchwood M, Byrne R, Davies LM, Fowler D, Gumley AI, Jones PB, Lewis SW, Murray GK, Patterson P, Dunn G (2011), “Early detection and intervention evaluation for people at high-risk of psychosis-2 (EDIE-2): trial rationale, design and baseline characteristics.” Early Interv Psychiatry 5(1):24-32 Details

Mukkala S, Ilonen T, Nordström T, Miettunen J, Loukkola J, Barnett JH, Murray GK, Jääskeläinen E, Mäki P, Taanila A, Moilanen I, Jones PB, Heinimaa M, Veijola J (2011), “Different vulnerability indicators for psychosis and their neuropsychological characteristics in the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort.” J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 33(4):385-94 Details

Murray GK (2011), “The emerging biology of delusions.” Psychol Med 41(1):7-13 Details

Scoriels L, Barnett JH, Murray GK, Cherukuru S, Fielding M, Cheng F, Lennox BR, Sahakian BJ, Jones PB (2011), “Effects of modafinil on emotional processing in first episode psychosis.” Biol Psychiatry 69(5):457-64 Details

Tanskanen P, Valkama M, Haapea M, Barnes A, Ridler K, Miettunen J, Murray GK, Veijola JM, Jones PB, Taanila AM, Isohanni MK (2011), “Is prematurity associated with adult cognitive outcome and brain structure?” Pediatr Neurol 44(1):12-20 Details


Holcomb HH, Murray GK (2010), “Successful learning in schizophrenia, functional neuroimaging studies, and theoretical considerations.” Schizophr Bull 36(3):463-4 Details

Kehagia AA, Murray GK, Robbins TW (2010), “Learning and cognitive flexibility: frontostriatal function and monoaminergic modulation.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 20(2):199-204 Details

Mäki P, Riekki T, Miettunen J, Isohanni M, Jones PB, Murray GK, Veijola J (2010), “Schizophrenia in the offspring of antenatally depressed mothers in the northern Finland 1966 birth cohort: relationship to family history of psychosis.” Am J Psychiatry 167(1):70-7 Details

Murray GK, Corlett PR, Fletcher PC (2010), “The Neural Underpinnings of Associative Learning in Health and Psychosis: How Can Performance Be Preserved When Brain Responses Are Abnormal?” Schizophr Bull Details

Penttilä M, Jääskeläinen E, Haapea M, Tanskanen P, Veijola J, Ridler K, Murray GK, Barnes A, Jones PB, Isohanni M, Koponen H, Miettunen J (2010), “Association between duration of untreated psychosis and brain morphology in schizophrenia within the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.” Schizophr Res Details

Pomarol-Clotet E, Salvador R, Murray G, Tandon S, McKenna PJ (2010), “Are there valid subtypes of schizophrenia? A grade of membership analysis.” Psychopathology 43(1):53-62 Details

Poustka L, Murray GK, Jääskeläinen E, Veijola J, Jones P, Isohanni M, Miettunen J (2010), “The influence of temperament on symptoms and functional outcome in people with psychosis in the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.” Eur Psychiatry 25(1):26-32 Details

Ziauddeen H, Murray GK (2010), “The relevance of reward pathways for schizophrenia.” Curr Opin Psychiatry 23(2):91-6 Details


Corlett PR, Simons JS, Pigott JS, Gardner JM, Murray GK, Krystal JH, Fletcher PC (2009), “Illusions and delusions: relating experimentally-induced false memories to anomalous experiences and ideas.” Front Behav Neurosci 3:53 Details

Lebreton M, Barnes A, Miettunen J, Peltonen L, Ridler K, Veijola J, Tanskanen P, Suckling J, Jarvelin MR, Jones PB, Isohanni M, Bullmore ET, Murray GK (2009), “The brain structural disposition to social interaction.” Eur J Neurosci 29(11):2247-52 Details

Murray G (2009), “Dopamine dysfunction and delusions, hallucinations and anhedonia” European Psychiatric Review 2(1): 21-23


Honey GD, Corlett PR, Absalom AR, Lee M, Pomarol-Clotet E, Murray GK, McKenna PJ, Bullmore ET, Menon DK, Fletcher PC (2008), “Individual differences in psychotic effects of ketamine are predicted by brain function measured under placebo.” J Neurosci 28(25):6295-303 Details

Jääskeläinen E, Miettunen J, Veijola J, McGrath JJ, Murray GK, Jones PB, Isohanni M (2008), “Associations between early development and outcome in schizophrenia--A 35-year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.” Schizophr Res 99(1-3):29-37 Details

Miettunen J, Törmänen S, Murray GK, Jones PB, Mäki P, Ebeling H, Moilanen I, Taanila A, Heinimaa M, Joukamaa M, Veijola J (2008), “Association of cannabis use with prodromal symptoms of psychosis in adolescence.” Br J Psychiatry 192:470-1 Details

Murray GK, Clark L, Corlett PR, Blackwell AD, Cools R, Jones PB, Robbins TW, Poustka L (2008), “Incentive motivation in first-episode psychosis: a behavioural study.” BMC Psychiatry 8:34 Details

Tanskanen P, Ridler K, Murray GK, Haapea M, Veijola JM, Jääskeläinen E, Miettunen J, Jones PB, Bullmore ET, Isohanni MK (2008), “Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenia in a Population-Based Sample: Relationship to Duration of Illness.” Schizophr Bull Details


Barnett JH, Werners U, Secher SM, Hill KE, Brazil R, Masson K, Pernet DE, Kirkbride JB, Murray GK, Bullmore ET, Jones PB (2007), “Substance use in a population-based clinic sample of people with first-episode psychosis.” Br J Psychiatry 190:515-20 Details

Corlett PR, Murray GK, Honey GD, Aitken MR, Shanks DR, Robbins TW, Bullmore ET, Dickinson A, Fletcher PC (2007), “Disrupted prediction-error signal in psychosis: evidence for an associative account of delusions.” Brain 130(Pt 9):2387-400 Details

Murray GK, Jones PB, Kuh D, Richards M (2007), “Infant developmental milestones and subsequent cognitive function.” Ann Neurol 62(2):128-36 Details


Corlett PR, Honey GD, Aitken MR, Dickinson A, Shanks DR, Absalom AR, Lee M, Pomarol-Clotet E, Murray GK, McKenna PJ, Robbins TW, Bullmore ET, Fletcher PC (2006), “Frontal responses during learning predict vulnerability to the psychotogenic effects of ketamine: linking cognition, brain activity, and psychosis.” Arch Gen Psychiatry 63(6):611-21 Details

Isohanni M, Miettunen J, Mäki P, Murray GK, Ridler K, Lauronen E, Moilanen K, Alaräisänen A, Haapea M, Isohanni I, Ivleva E, Tamminga C, McGrath J, Koponen H (2006), “Risk factors for schizophrenia. Follow-up data from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study.” World Psychiatry 5(3):168-71 Details

Murray GK, Jones PB, Moilanen K, Veijola J, Miettunen J, Cannon TD, Isohanni M (2006), “Infant motor development and adult cognitive functions in schizophrenia.” Schizophr Res 81(1):65-74 Details

Murray GK, Veijola J, Moilanen K, Miettunen J, Glahn DC, Cannon TD, Jones PB, Isohanni M (2006), “Infant motor development is associated with adult cognitive categorisation in a longitudinal birth cohort study.” J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47(1):25-9 Details

Pomarol-Clotet E, Honey GD, Murray GK, Corlett PR, Absalom AR, Lee M, McKenna PJ, Bullmore ET, Fletcher PC (2006), “Psychological effects of ketamine in healthy volunteers. Phenomenological study.” Br J Psychiatry 189:173-9 Details

Ridler K, Veijola JM, Tanskanen P, Miettunen J, Chitnis X, Suckling J, Murray GK, Haapea M, Jones PB, Isohanni MK, Bullmore ET (2006), “Fronto-cerebellar systems are associated with infant motor and adult executive functions in healthy adults but not in schizophrenia.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(42):15651-6 Details


Broome MR, Woolley JB, Tabraham P, Johns LC, Bramon E, Murray GK, Pariante C, McGuire PK, Murray RM (2005), “What causes the onset of psychosis?” Schizophr Res 79(1):23-34 Details

Isohanni M, Lauronen E, Moilanen K, Isohanni I, Kemppainen L, Koponen H, Miettunen J, Mäki P, Räsänen S, Veijola J, Tienari P, Wahlberg KE, Murray GK (2005), “Predictors of schizophrenia: evidence from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort and other sources.” Br J Psychiatry Suppl 48:s4-7 Details

Leeson VC, McKenna PJ, Murray G, Kondel TK, Laws KR (2005), “What happens to semantic memory when formal thought disorder remits? Revisiting a case study.” Cognit Neuropsychiatry 10(1):57-71 Details

Mäki P, Veijola J, Jones PB, Murray GK, Koponen H, Tienari P, Miettunen J, Tanskanen P, Wahlberg KE, Koskinen J, Lauronen E, Isohanni M (2005), “Predictors of schizophrenia--a review.” Br Med Bull 73-74:1-15 Details

Taanila A, Murray GK, Jokelainen J, Isohanni M, Rantakallio P (2005), “Infant developmental milestones: a 31-year follow-up.” Dev Med Child Neurol 47(9):581-6 Details


Isohanni M, Isohanni I, Koponen H, Koskinen J, Laine P, Lauronen E, Miettunen J, Mäki P, Riala K, Räsänen S, Saari K, Tienari P, Veijola J, Murray G (2004), “Developmental precursors of psychosis.” Curr Psychiatry Rep 6(3):168-75 Details

Isohanni M, Murray GK, Jokelainen J, Croudace T, Jones PB (2004), “The persistence of developmental markers in childhood and adolescence and risk for schizophrenic psychoses in adult life. A 34-year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort.” Schizophr Res 71(2-3):213-25 Details

Murray GK, Leeson V, McKenna PJ (2004), “Spontaneous improvement in severe, chronic schizophrenia and its neuropsychological correlates.” Br J Psychiatry 184:357-8 Details


Murray GK, Nandhra H, Hymas N, Hunt N (2003), “Copying letters to patients. Psychiatrists omit information from letters when they know patients will be sent copies.” BMJ 326(7386):449 Details


Takei N, Murray G, O'Callaghan E, Sham PC, Glover G, Murray RM (1995), “Prenatal exposure to influenza epidemics and risk of mental retardation.” Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 245(4-5):255-9 Details


O'Callaghan E, Sham PC, Takei N, Murray G, Glover G, Hare EH, Murray RM (1994), “The relationship of schizophrenic births to 16 infectious diseases.” Br J Psychiatry 165(3):353-6 Details

Takei N, Sham P, O'Callaghan E, Murray GK, Glover G, Murray RM (1994), “Prenatal exposure to influenza and the development of schizophrenia: is the effect confined to females?” Am J Psychiatry 151(1):117-9 Details


Sham PC, O'Callaghan E, Takei N, Murray GK, Hare EH, Murray RM (1992), “Schizophrenia following pre-natal exposure to influenza epidemics between 1939 and 1960.” Br J Psychiatry 160:461-6 Details