Dr Emiliano Merlo


My research focus is oriented to understand the molecular bases of memory formation and maintenance. In particular, I am applying behavioural, pharmacological and molecular analysis to study the switch underlying the transition between reconsolidation and extinction of fear memory.

Research Focus


Fear memory




Molecular biology

Clinical conditions


Anxiety disorders

Post-traumatic stress disorder


Behavioural analysis

Confocal microscopy

Fluorescence microscopy


Molecular biology

Protein purification



Daniele Caprioli

Barry Everitt

Dalley Jeff

Amy Milton

Associated News Items

    Key publications

    Merlo E, Milton AL & Everitt BJ (2015), “Enhancing Cognition by Affecting Memory Reconsolidation.” Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 4: 41-47

    Merlo E, Ratano P, Ilioi EC, Robbins MALS, Everitt BJ & Milton AL (2015), “Amygdala dopamine receptors are required for the destabilization of a reconsolidating appetitive memory” eNeuro

    Caprioli D, Sawiak SJ, Merlo E, Theobald DE, Spoelder M, Jupp B, Voon V, Carpenter TA, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW, Dalley JW (2014), “Gamma aminobutyric acidergic and neuronal structural markers in the nucleus accumbens core underlie trait-like impulsive behavior.” Biol Psychiatry 75(2):115-23 Details

    Merlo E, Milton AL, Goozée ZY, Theobald DE, Everitt BJ (2014), “Reconsolidation and extinction are dissociable and mutually exclusive processes: behavioral and molecular evidence.” J Neurosci 34(7):2422-31 Details

    Milton AL, Merlo E, Ratano P, Gregory BL, Dumbreck JK, Everitt BJ (2013), “Double dissociation of the requirement for GluN2B- and GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors in the destabilization and restabilization of a reconsolidating memory.” J Neurosci 33(3):1109-15 Details



    Hayes DJ, Jupp B, Sawiak SJ, Merlo E, Caprioli D, Dalley JW (2014), “Brain γ-aminobutyric acid: a neglected role in impulsivity.” Eur J Neurosci 39(11):1921-32 Details


    Merlo E, Romano A (2008), “Memory extinction entails the inhibition of the transcription factor NF-kappaB.” PLoS One 3(11):e3687 Details


    Merlo E, Romano A (2007), “Long-term memory consolidation depends on proteasome activity in the crab Chasmagnathus.” Neuroscience 147(1):46-52 Details


    Romano A, Freudenthal R, Merlo E, Routtenberg A (2006), “Evolutionarily-conserved role of the NF-kappaB transcription factor in neural plasticity and memory.” Eur J Neurosci 24(6):1507-16 Details

    Romano A, Locatelli F, Freudenthal R, Merlo E, Feld M, Ariel P, Lemos D, Federman N, Fustiñana MS (2006), “Lessons from a crab: molecular mechanisms in different memory phases of Chasmagnathus.” Biol Bull 210(3):280-8 Details


    Freudenthal R, Boccia MM, Acosta GB, Blake MG, Merlo E, Baratti CM, Romano A (2005), “NF-kappaB transcription factor is required for inhibitory avoidance long-term memory in mice.” Eur J Neurosci 21(10):2845-52 Details

    Merlo E, Freudenthal R, Maldonado H, Romano A (2005), “Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB by retrieval is required for long-term memory reconsolidation.” Learn Mem 12(1):23-9 Details


    Merlo E, Freudenthal R, Romano A (2002), “The IkappaB kinase inhibitor sulfasalazine impairs long-term memory in the crab Chasmagnathus.” Neuroscience 112(1):161-72 Details