Professor Wolfram Schultz

Wolfram Schultz

University position

Professor of Neuroscience

Professor Wolfram Schultz is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.


Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience


Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute


Home page (personal home page)

Research Themes

Systems and Computational Neuroscience

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience


Our group is interested to relate the mechanics of brain activity to measurable behaviour. We combine neurophysiological, imaging and behavioural techniques to investigate the neural correlates of goal-directed. We are interested in outcome value (in particular reward) signals in specific brain structures such as dopamine neurons, striatum, frontal cortex and amygdala. These rapid, global, evaluative and supervising neural signals may play a role in decision-making and choice behaviour. In investigating these outcome-coding mechanisms we try to establish a common biological basis for animal learning theory, microeconomic utility and game theories, and behavioural ecology. The larger background is to consider the brain in its capacity for processing reward information as an essential organ for assuring the fitness for survival in an evolutionary framework.

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Research Focus






neural circuit

Clinical conditions


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Huntington's disease

Learning disbilities

Movement disorders

Obsessive compulsive disorder

Parkinson's disease



Behavioural analysis

Electrophysiological recording techniques

Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)



Michelle Baddeley

Anthony Dickinson

Paul Fletcher

Christopher Harris

United Kingdom

Ray Dolan Web:


Peter Bossaerts Web:

Masamichi Sakagami Web:

Masataka Watanabe Web:

Key publications

Kobayashi S, Schultz W (2014), “Reward contexts extend dopamine signals to unrewarded stimuli.” Curr Biol 24(1):56-62 Details

Lak A, Stauffer WR, Schultz W (2014), “Dopamine prediction error responses integrate subjective value from different reward dimensions.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Details

Báez-Mendoza R, Harris CJ, Schultz W (2013), “Activity of striatal neurons reflects social action and own reward.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(41):16634-9 Details

d'Acremont M, Schultz W, Bossaerts P (2013), “The human brain encodes event frequencies while forming subjective beliefs.” J Neurosci 33(26):10887-97 Details

O'Neill M, Schultz W (2013), “Risk prediction error coding in orbitofrontal neurons.” J Neurosci 33(40):15810-4 Details

Schultz W (2013), “Updating dopamine reward signals.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 23(2):229-38 Details

Bermudez MA, Göbel C, Schultz W (2012), “Sensitivity to temporal reward structure in amygdala neurons.” Curr Biol 22(19):1839-44 Details

Grabenhorst F, Hernádi I, Schultz W (2012), “Prediction of economic choice by primate amygdala neurons.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(46):18950-5 Details

Hare TA, Schultz W, Camerer CF, O'Doherty JP, Rangel A (2011), “Transformation of stimulus value signals into motor commands during simple choice.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(44):18120-5 Details

Schultz W (2011), “Potential vulnerabilities of neuronal reward, risk, and decision mechanisms to addictive drugs” Neuron 69: 603-617

Bermudez MA, Schultz W (2010), “Reward magnitude coding in primate amygdala neurons.” J Neurophysiol 104(6):3424-32 Details

Bermudez MA, Schultz W (2010), “Responses of amygdala neurons to positive reward-predicting stimuli depend on background reward (contingency) rather than stimulus-reward pairing (contiguity).” J Neurophysiol 103(3):1158-70 Details

Burke CJ, Tobler PN, Baddeley M, Schultz W (2010), “Neural mechanisms of observational learning.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(32):14431-6 Details

Kobayashi S, Pinto de Carvalho O, Schultz W (2010), “Adaptation of reward sensitivity in orbitofrontal neurons” J Neurosci 30: 534-544

O'Neill M, Schultz W (2010), “Coding of reward risk distinct from reward value by orbitofrontal neurons” Neuron 68: 789-800

Gregorios-Pippas L, Tobler PN, Schultz W (2009), “Short-term temporal discounting of reward value in human ventral striatum.” J Neurophysiol 101(3):1507-23 Details

Tobler PN, Christopoulos GI, O'Doherty JP, Dolan RJ, Schultz W (2009), “Risk-dependent reward value signal in human prefrontal cortex.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(17):7185-90 Details

Hare TA, O'Doherty J, Camerer CF, Schultz W, Rangel A (2008), “Dissociating the role of the orbitofrontal cortex and the striatum in the computation of goal values and prediction errors.” J Neurosci 28(22):5623-30 Details

Kobayashi S, Schultz W (2008), “Influence of reward delays on responses of dopamine neurons” J Neurosci 28: 7837-7846

Tobler PN, Christopoulos GI, O'Doherty JP, Dolan RJ, Schultz W (2008), “Neuronal distortions of reward probability without choice.” J Neurosci 28(45):11703-11 Details

Schultz W (2007), “Multiple dopamine functions at different time courses.” Annu Rev Neurosci 30:259-88 Details

Schultz W (2007), “Behavioral dopamine signals.” Trends Neurosci 30(5):203-10 Details

Tobler PN, O’Doherty JP, Dolan R, Schultz W (2007), “Reward value coding distinct from risk attitude-related uncertainty coding in human reward systems” J Neurophysiol 97:1621-1632 Details

Schultz W (2006), “Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward” Ann Rev Psychol 57:87-115

Tobler PN, O'doherty JP, Dolan RJ, Schultz W (2006), “Human neural learning depends on reward prediction errors in the blocking paradigm.” J Neurophysiol 95(1):301-10 Details

Tobler PN, Fiorillo CD, Schultz W (2005), “Adaptive coding of reward value by dopamine neurons.” Science 307(5715):1642-5 Details

Cromwell HC, Schultz W (2003), “Effects of expectations for different reward magnitudes on neuronal activity in primate striatum.” J Neurophysiol 89(5):2823-38 Details

Fiorillo CD, Tobler PN, Schultz W (2003), “Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons” Science 299:1898-1902

Tobler PN, Dickinson A, Schultz W (2003), “Coding of predicted reward omission by dopamine neurons in a conditioned inhibition paradigm.” J Neurosci 23(32):10402-10 Details

Schultz W (2002), “Getting formal with dopamine and reward.” Neuron 36(2):241-63 Details

Hassani OK, Cromwell HC, Schultz W (2001), “Influence of expectation of different rewards on behavior-related neuronal activity in the striatum.” J Neurophysiol 85(6):2477-89 Details

Suri RE, Schultz W (2001), “Temporal difference model reproduces anticipatory neural activity.” Neural Comput 13(4):841-62 Details

Waelti P, Dickinson A, Schultz W (2001), “Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory.” Nature 412(6842):43-8 Details

Watanabe M, Cromwell HC, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR, Hikosaka K, Schultz W (2001), “Behavioral reactions reflecting differential reward expectations in monkeys.” Exp Brain Res 140(4):511-8 Details

Schultz W (2000), “Multiple reward signals in the brain.” Nat Rev Neurosci 1(3):199-207 Details

Schultz W, Dickinson A (2000), “Neuronal coding of prediction errors.” Annu Rev Neurosci 23:473-500 Details

Schultz W, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR (2000), “Reward processing in primate orbitofrontal cortex and basal ganglia.” Cereb Cortex 10(3):272-84 Details

Tremblay L, Schultz W (2000), “Modifications of reward expectation-related neuronal activity during learning in primate orbitofrontal cortex.” J Neurophysiol 83(4):1877-85 Details

Tremblay L, Schultz W (2000), “Reward-related neuronal activity during go-nogo task performance in primate orbitofrontal cortex.” J Neurophysiol 83(4):1864-76 Details

Suri RE, Schultz W (1999), “A neural network model with dopamine-like reinforcement signal that learns a spatial delayed response task.” Neuroscience 91(3):871-90 Details

Tremblay L, Schultz W (1999), “Relative reward preference in primate orbitofrontal cortex.” Nature 398(6729):704-8 Details

Hollerman JR, Schultz W (1998), “Dopamine neurons report an error in the temporal prediction of reward during learning.” Nat Neurosci 1(4):304-9 Details

Hollerman JR, Tremblay L, Schultz W (1998), “Influence of reward expectation on behavior-related neuronal activity in primate striatum.” J Neurophysiol 80(2):947-63 Details

Schultz W (1998), “Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons.” J Neurophysiol 80(1):1-27 Details

Tremblay L, Hollerman JR, Schultz W (1998), “Modifications of reward expectation-related neuronal activity during learning in primate striatum.” J Neurophysiol 80(2):964-77 Details

Schultz W, Dayan P, Montague PR (1997), “A neural substrate of prediction and reward.” Science 275(5306):1593-9 Details

Thut G, Schultz W, Roelcke U, Nienhusmeier M, Missimer J, Maguire RP, Leenders KL (1997), “Activation of the human brain by monetary reward.” Neuroreport 8(5):1225-8 Details

Mirenowicz J, Schultz W (1996), “Preferential activation of midbrain dopamine neurons by appetitive rather than aversive stimuli.” Nature 379(6564):449-51 Details

Mirenowicz J, Schultz W (1994), “Importance of unpredictability for reward responses in primate dopamine neurons.” J Neurophysiol 72(2):1024-7 Details

Schultz W, Apicella P, Ljungberg T (1993), “Responses of monkey dopamine neurons to reward and conditioned stimuli during successive steps of learning a delayed response task.” J Neurosci 13(3):900-13 Details

Apicella P, Scarnati E, Ljungberg T, Schultz W (1992), “Neuronal activity in monkey striatum related to the expectation of predictable environmental events.” J Neurophysiol 68(3):945-60 Details

Ljungberg T, Apicella P, Schultz W (1992), “Responses of monkey dopamine neurons during learning of behavioral reactions.” J Neurophysiol 67(1):145-63 Details

Romo R, Scarnati E, Schultz W (1992), “Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements. II. Movement-related activity in the anterior striatum.” Exp Brain Res 91(3):385-95 Details

Romo R, Schultz W (1992), “Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements. III. Neuronal activity in the supplementary motor area.” Exp Brain Res 91(3):396-407 Details

Schultz W, Apicella P, Scarnati E, Ljungberg T (1992), “Neuronal activity in monkey ventral striatum related to the expectation of reward.” J Neurosci 12(12):4595-610 Details

Schultz W, Romo R (1992), “Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements. I. Preparatory activity in the anterior striatum.” Exp Brain Res 91(3):363-84 Details

Apicella P, Ljungberg T, Scarnati E, Schultz W (1991), “Responses to reward in monkey dorsal and ventral striatum.” Exp Brain Res 85(3):491-500 Details

Romo R, Schultz W (1990), “Dopamine neurons of the monkey midbrain: contingencies of responses to active touch during self-initiated arm movements.” J Neurophysiol 63(3):592-606 Details

Schultz W, Romo R (1990), “Dopamine neurons of the monkey midbrain: contingencies of responses to stimuli eliciting immediate behavioral reactions.” J Neurophysiol 63(3):607-24 Details

Schultz W, Scarnati E, Sundström E, Romo R (1989), “Protection against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism by the catecholamine uptake inhibitor nomifensine: behavioral analysis in monkeys with partial striatal dopamine depletions.” Neuroscience 31(1):219-30 Details

Schultz W, Studer A, Romo R, Sundström E, Jonsson G, Scarnati E (1989), “Deficits in reaction times and movement times as correlates of hypokinesia in monkeys with MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletion.” J Neurophysiol 61(3):651-68 Details

Schultz W, Romo R (1988), “Neuronal activity in the monkey striatum during the initiation of movements.” Exp Brain Res 71(2):431-6 Details

Romo R, Schultz W (1987), “Neuronal activity preceding self-initiated or externally timed arm movements in area 6 of monkey cortex.” Exp Brain Res 67(3):656-62 Details

Schultz W (1986), “Responses of midbrain dopamine neurons to behavioral trigger stimuli in the monkey.” J Neurophysiol 56(5):1439-61 Details

Schultz W, Scarnati E, Sundström E, Tsutsumi T, Jonsson G (1986), “The catecholamine uptake blocker nomifensine protects against MPTP-induced parkinsonism in monkeys.” Exp Brain Res 63(1):216-20 Details

Schultz W (1982), “Depletion of dopamine in the striatum as an experimental model of Parkinsonism: direct effects and adaptive mechanisms.” Prog Neurobiol 18(2-3):121-66 Details

Ruffieux A, Schultz W (1980), “Dopaminergic activation of reticulata neurones in the substantia nigra.” Nature 285(5762):240-1 Details

Schultz W, Montgomery EB Jr, Marini R (1979), “Proximal limb movements in response to microstimulation of primate dentate and interpositus nuclei mediated by brain-stem structures.” Brain 102(1):127-46 Details

Allen GI, Gilbert PF, Marini R, Schultz W, Yin TC (1977), “Integration of cerebral and peripheral inputs by interpositus neurons in monkey.” Exp Brain Res 27(1):81-99 Details

Hellweg FC, Schultz W, Creutzfeldt OD (1977), “Extracellular and intracellular recordings from cat's cortical whisker projection area: thalamocortical response transformation.” J Neurophysiol 40(3):463-79 Details



Bermudez MA, Schultz W (2014), “Timing in reward and decision processes.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 369(1637):20120468 Details

O'Neill M, Schultz W (2014), “Economic risk coding by single neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex.” J Physiol Paris Details


Báez-Mendoza R, Schultz W (2013), “The role of the striatum in social behavior.” Front Neurosci 7:233 Details


Ariansen JL, Heien ML, Hermans A, Phillips PE, Hernadi I, Bermudez MA, Schultz W, Wightman RM (2012), “Monitoring extracellular pH, oxygen, and dopamine during reward delivery in the striatum of primates.” Front Behav Neurosci 6:36 Details

Miyapuram KP, Tobler PN, Gregorios-Pippas L, Schultz W (2012), “BOLD responses in reward regions to hypothetical and imaginary monetary rewards.” Neuroimage 59(2):1692-9 Details

Schultz W (2012), “Risky dopamine.” Biol Psychiatry 71(3):180-1 Details


Schultz W, O'Neill M, Tobler PN, Kobayashi S (2011), “Neuronal signals for reward risk in frontal cortex.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 1239:109-17 Details


Burke CJ, Tobler PN, Schultz W, Baddeley M (2010), “Striatal BOLD Response Reflects the Impact of Herd Information on Financial Decisions.” Front Hum Neurosci 4:48 Details

Kobayashi S, Schultz W, Sakagami M (2010), “Operant conditioning of primate prefrontal neurons.” J Neurophysiol 103(4):1843-55 Details

Nomoto K, Schultz W, Watanabe T, Sakagami M (2010), “Temporally extended dopamine responses to perceptually demanding reward-predictive stimuli.” J Neurosci 30(32):10692-702 Details

Schultz W (2010), “Subjective neuronal coding of reward: temporal value discounting and risk.” Eur J Neurosci 31(12):2124-35 Details

Schultz W (2010), “Dopamine signals for reward value and risk: basic and recent data.” Behav Brain Funct 6:24 Details


Christopoulos GI, Tobler PN, Bossaerts P, Dolan RJ, Schultz W (2009), “Neural correlates of value, risk, and risk aversion contributing to decision making under risk.” J Neurosci 29(40):12574-83 Details


Fiorillo CD, Newsome WT, Schultz W (2008), “The temporal precision of reward prediction in dopamine neurons.” Nat Neurosci Details


Tobler PN, Fletcher PC, Bullmore ET, Schultz W (2007), “Learning-related human brain activations reflecting individual finances.” Neuron 54(1):167-75 Details


Blatter K, Schultz W (2006), “Rewarding properties of visual stimuli.” Exp Brain Res 168(4):541-6 Details

Kobayashi S, Nomoto K, Watanabe M, Hikosaka O, Schultz W, Sakagami M (2006), “Influences of rewarding and aversive outcomes on activity in macaque lateral prefrontal cortex.” Neuron 51(6):861-70 Details


Cromwell HC, Hassani OK, Schultz W (2005), “Relative reward processing in primate striatum.” Exp Brain Res 162(4):520-5 Details

Fiorillo CD, Tobler PN, Schultz W (2005), “Evidence that the delay-period activity of dopamine neurons corresponds to reward uncertainty rather than backpropagating TD errors.” Behav Brain Funct 1(1):7 Details


Schultz W (2004), “Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 14(2):139-47 Details


Martin-Soelch C, Missimer J, Leenders KL, Schultz W (2003), “Neural activity related to the processing of increasing monetary reward in smokers and nonsmokers.” Eur J Neurosci 18(3):680-8 Details

Schultz W, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR (2003), “Changes in behavior-related neuronal activity in the striatum during learning.” Trends Neurosci 26(6):321-8 Details


Martin-Soelch C, Chevalley AF, Künig G, Missimer J, Magyar S, Mino A, Schultz W, Leenders KL (2001), “Changes in reward-induced brain activation in opiate addicts.” Eur J Neurosci 14(8):1360-8 Details

Martin-Soelch C, Leenders KL, Chevalley AF, Missimer J, Künig G, Magyar S, Mino A, Schultz W (2001), “Reward mechanisms in the brain and their role in dependence: evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies.” Brain Res Brain Res Rev 36(2-3):139-49 Details

Martin-Sölch C, Magyar S, Künig G, Missimer J, Schultz W, Leenders KL (2001), “Changes in brain activation associated with reward processing in smokers and nonsmokers. A positron emission tomography study.” Exp Brain Res 139(3):278-86 Details

Schultz W (2001), “Reward signaling by dopamine neurons.” Neuroscientist 7(4):293-302 Details


Cavada C, Schultz W (2000), “The mysterious orbitofrontal cortex. foreword” Cereb Cortex 10(3):205 Details

Hollerman JR, Tremblay L, Schultz W (2000), “Involvement of basal ganglia and orbitofrontal cortex in goal-directed behavior.” Prog Brain Res 126:193-215 Details

Künig G, Leenders KL, Martin-Sölch C, Missimer J, Magyar S, Schultz W (2000), “Reduced reward processing in the brains of Parkinsonian patients.” Neuroreport 11(17):3681-7 Details


Contreras-Vidal JL, Schultz W (1999), “A predictive reinforcement model of dopamine neurons for learning approach behavior.” J Comput Neurosci 6(3):191-214 Details

Schultz W (1999), “The Reward Signal of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons.” News Physiol Sci 14:249-255 Details


Schultz W (1998), “The phasic reward signal of primate dopamine neurons.” Adv Pharmacol 42:686-90 Details

Schultz W, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR (1998), “Reward prediction in primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex.” Neuropharmacology 37(4-5):421-9 Details

Suri RE, Schultz W (1998), “Learning of sequential movements by neural network model with dopamine-like reinforcement signal.” Exp Brain Res 121(3):350-4 Details


Schultz W (1997), “Dopamine neurons and their role in reward mechanisms.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 7(2):191-7 Details


Guigon E, Dorizzi B, Burnod Y, Schultz W (1995), “Neural correlates of learning in the prefrontal cortex of the monkey: a predictive model.” Cereb Cortex 5(2):135-47 Details


Schultz W (1994), “Behavior-related activity of primate dopamine neurons.” Rev Neurol (Paris) 150(8-9):634-9 Details


Galbraith GC, Schultz W (1993), “Perceptual adaptation in the vestibulo-ocular system: EEG correlates of spatial and temporal rearrangement.” Percept Mot Skills 77(2):595-608 Details

Schultz W, Apicella P, Ljungberg T, Romo R, Scarnati E (1993), “Reward-related activity in the monkey striatum and substantia nigra.” Prog Brain Res 99:227-35 Details


Apicella P, Scarnati E, Schultz W (1991), “Tonically discharging neurons of monkey striatum respond to preparatory and rewarding stimuli.” Exp Brain Res 84(3):672-5 Details

Ljungberg T, Apicella P, Schultz W (1991), “Responses of monkey midbrain dopamine neurons during delayed alternation performance.” Brain Res 567(2):337-41 Details


Romo R, Schultz W (1989), “Somatosensory input to dopamine neurones of the monkey midbrain: responses to pain pinch under anaesthesia and to active touch in behavioural context.” Prog Brain Res 80:473-8; discussion 465-6 Details

Schultz W, Romo R, Scarnati E, Sundström E, Jonsson G, Studer A (1989), “Saccadic reaction times, eye-arm coordination and spontaneous eye movements in normal and MPTP-treated monkeys.” Exp Brain Res 78(2):253-67 Details


Schultz W (1988), “MPTP-induced parkinsonism in monkeys: mechanism of action, selectivity and pathophysiology.” Gen Pharmacol 19(2):153-61 Details

Studer A, Sundström E, Jonsson G, Schultz W (1988), “Acute electrophysiological and neurochemical effects of administration of MPTP in mice.” Neuropharmacology 27(9):923-31 Details


Schultz W, Romo R (1987), “Responses of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons to high-intensity somatosensory stimulation in the anesthetized monkey.” J Neurophysiol 57(1):201-17 Details

Studer A, Schultz W (1987), “The catecholamine uptake inhibitor nomifensine depresses impulse activity of dopamine neurons in mouse substantia nigra.” Neurosci Lett 80(2):207-12 Details


Schultz W (1986), “Activity of pars reticulata neurons of monkey substantia nigra in relation to motor, sensory, and complex events.” J Neurophysiol 55(4):660-77 Details


Romo R, Schultz W (1985), “Prolonged changes in dopaminergic terminal excitability and short changes in dopaminergic neuron discharge rate after short peripheral stimulation in monkey.” Neurosci Lett 62(3):335-40 Details

Schultz W, Studer A, Jonsson G, Sundström E, Mefford I (1985), “Deficits in behavioral initiation and execution processes in monkeys with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism.” Neurosci Lett 59(2):225-32 Details

Toan DL, Schultz W (1985), “Responses of rat pallidum cells to cortex stimulation and effects of altered dopaminergic activity.” Neuroscience 15(3):683-94 Details


Aebischer P, Schultz W (1984), “The activity of pars compacta neurons of the monkey substantia nigra is depressed by apomorphine.” Neurosci Lett 50(1-3):25-9 Details

Schultz W (1984), “Recent physiological and pathophysiological aspects of Parkinsonian movement disorders.” Life Sci 34(23):2213-23 Details


Ruffieux A, Schultz W (1981), “[Influence of dopamine on pars reticulata neurones of substantia nigra (author's transl)].” J Physiol (Paris) 77(1):63-9 Details

Schultz W, Wiesendanger R, Hess B, Ruffieux A, Wiesendanger M (1981), “The somatotopy of the gracile nucleus in cats with agenesis of a hindfoot.” Exp Brain Res 43(3-4):413-8 Details


Schultz W, Ungerstedt U (1978), “Striatal cell supersensitivity to apomorphine in dopamine-lesioned rats correlated to behaviour.” Neuropharmacology 17(6):349-53 Details

Schultz W, Ungerstedt U (1978), “A method to detect and record from striatal cells of low spontaneous activity by stimulating the corticostriatal pathway.” Brain Res 142(2):357-62 Details

Ungerstedt U, Ljungberg T, Schultz W (1978), “Dopamine receptor mechanisms: behavioral and electrophysiological studies.” Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 19:311-21 Details

Zangger P, Schultz W (1978), “The activity of cells of nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis during spontaneous locomotion in the decorticate cat.” Neurosci Lett 7(2-3):95-9 Details


Schultz W, Galbraith GC, Gottschaldt KM, Creutzfeldt OD (1976), “A comparison of primary afferent and cortical neurone activity coding sinus hair movements in the cat.” Exp Brain Res 24(4):365-81 Details

Schultz W, Montgomery EB Jr, Marini R (1976), “Stereotyped flexion of forelimb and hindlimb to microstimulation of dentate nucleus in cebus monkeys.” Brain Res 107(1):151-1 Details