Professor Wolfram Schultz

Wolfram Schultz

University position

Professor of Neuroscience

Professor Wolfram Schultz is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.

Departments

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience

Institutes

Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute

Email

ws234@cam.ac.uk

Home page

http://www.pdn.cam.ac.uk/staff/s... (personal home page)

Research Themes

Systems and Computational Neuroscience

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience

Interests

Our group is interested to relate the mechanics of brain activity to measurable behaviour. We combine neurophysiological, imaging and behavioural techniques to investigate the neural correlates of goal-directed. We are interested in outcome value (in particular reward) signals in specific brain structures such as dopamine neurons, striatum, frontal cortex and amygdala. These rapid, global, evaluative and supervising neural signals may play a role in decision-making and choice behaviour. In investigating these outcome-coding mechanisms we try to establish a common biological basis for animal learning theory, microeconomic utility and game theories, and behavioural ecology. The larger background is to consider the brain in its capacity for processing reward information as an essential organ for assuring the fitness for survival in an evolutionary framework.

Rewards
Rewards
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Research Focus

Keywords

Reward

Value

Uncertainty

Action

neural circuit

Clinical conditions

Addiction

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Huntington's disease

Learning disbilities

Movement disorders

Obsessive compulsive disorder

Parkinson's disease

Schizophrenia

Equipment

Behavioural analysis

Electrophysiological recording techniques

Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Collaborators

Cambridge

Michelle Baddeley

Anthony Dickinson

Paul Fletcher

Christopher Harris

United Kingdom

Ray Dolan Web: http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/Dolan/

International

Peter Bossaerts Web: http://www.hss.caltech.edu/~pbs/

Masamichi Sakagami Web: http://www.tamagawa.ac.jp/sisetu/...

Masataka Watanabe Web: http://tmin.ac.jp/english...

Associated News Items


    Key publications

    Kobayashi S, Schultz W (2014), “Reward contexts extend dopamine signals to unrewarded stimuli.” Curr Biol 24(1):56-62 Details

    Lak A, Stauffer WR, Schultz W (2014), “Dopamine prediction error responses integrate subjective value from different reward dimensions.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Details

    Báez-Mendoza R, Harris CJ, Schultz W (2013), “Activity of striatal neurons reflects social action and own reward.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(41):16634-9 Details

    d'Acremont M, Schultz W, Bossaerts P (2013), “The human brain encodes event frequencies while forming subjective beliefs.” J Neurosci 33(26):10887-97 Details

    O'Neill M, Schultz W (2013), “Risk prediction error coding in orbitofrontal neurons.” J Neurosci 33(40):15810-4 Details

    Schultz W (2013), “Updating dopamine reward signals.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 23(2):229-38 Details

    Bermudez MA, Göbel C, Schultz W (2012), “Sensitivity to temporal reward structure in amygdala neurons.” Curr Biol 22(19):1839-44 Details

    Grabenhorst F, Hernádi I, Schultz W (2012), “Prediction of economic choice by primate amygdala neurons.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(46):18950-5 Details

    Hare TA, Schultz W, Camerer CF, O'Doherty JP, Rangel A (2011), “Transformation of stimulus value signals into motor commands during simple choice.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(44):18120-5 Details

    Schultz W (2011), “Potential vulnerabilities of neuronal reward, risk, and decision mechanisms to addictive drugs” Neuron 69: 603-617

    Bermudez MA, Schultz W (2010), “Reward magnitude coding in primate amygdala neurons.” J Neurophysiol 104(6):3424-32 Details

    Bermudez MA, Schultz W (2010), “Responses of amygdala neurons to positive reward-predicting stimuli depend on background reward (contingency) rather than stimulus-reward pairing (contiguity).” J Neurophysiol 103(3):1158-70 Details

    Burke CJ, Tobler PN, Baddeley M, Schultz W (2010), “Neural mechanisms of observational learning.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(32):14431-6 Details

    Kobayashi S, Pinto de Carvalho O, Schultz W (2010), “Adaptation of reward sensitivity in orbitofrontal neurons” J Neurosci 30: 534-544

    O'Neill M, Schultz W (2010), “Coding of reward risk distinct from reward value by orbitofrontal neurons” Neuron 68: 789-800

    Gregorios-Pippas L, Tobler PN, Schultz W (2009), “Short-term temporal discounting of reward value in human ventral striatum.” J Neurophysiol 101(3):1507-23 Details

    Tobler PN, Christopoulos GI, O'Doherty JP, Dolan RJ, Schultz W (2009), “Risk-dependent reward value signal in human prefrontal cortex.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(17):7185-90 Details

    Hare TA, O'Doherty J, Camerer CF, Schultz W, Rangel A (2008), “Dissociating the role of the orbitofrontal cortex and the striatum in the computation of goal values and prediction errors.” J Neurosci 28(22):5623-30 Details

    Kobayashi S, Schultz W (2008), “Influence of reward delays on responses of dopamine neurons” J Neurosci 28: 7837-7846

    Tobler PN, Christopoulos GI, O'Doherty JP, Dolan RJ, Schultz W (2008), “Neuronal distortions of reward probability without choice.” J Neurosci 28(45):11703-11 Details

    Schultz W (2007), “Multiple dopamine functions at different time courses.” Annu Rev Neurosci 30:259-88 Details

    Schultz W (2007), “Behavioral dopamine signals.” Trends Neurosci 30(5):203-10 Details

    Tobler PN, O’Doherty JP, Dolan R, Schultz W (2007), “Reward value coding distinct from risk attitude-related uncertainty coding in human reward systems” J Neurophysiol 97:1621-1632 Details

    Schultz W (2006), “Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward” Ann Rev Psychol 57:87-115

    Tobler PN, O'doherty JP, Dolan RJ, Schultz W (2006), “Human neural learning depends on reward prediction errors in the blocking paradigm.” J Neurophysiol 95(1):301-10 Details

    Tobler PN, Fiorillo CD, Schultz W (2005), “Adaptive coding of reward value by dopamine neurons.” Science 307(5715):1642-5 Details

    Cromwell HC, Schultz W (2003), “Effects of expectations for different reward magnitudes on neuronal activity in primate striatum.” J Neurophysiol 89(5):2823-38 Details

    Fiorillo CD, Tobler PN, Schultz W (2003), “Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons” Science 299:1898-1902

    Tobler PN, Dickinson A, Schultz W (2003), “Coding of predicted reward omission by dopamine neurons in a conditioned inhibition paradigm.” J Neurosci 23(32):10402-10 Details

    Schultz W (2002), “Getting formal with dopamine and reward.” Neuron 36(2):241-63 Details

    Hassani OK, Cromwell HC, Schultz W (2001), “Influence of expectation of different rewards on behavior-related neuronal activity in the striatum.” J Neurophysiol 85(6):2477-89 Details

    Suri RE, Schultz W (2001), “Temporal difference model reproduces anticipatory neural activity.” Neural Comput 13(4):841-62 Details

    Waelti P, Dickinson A, Schultz W (2001), “Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory.” Nature 412(6842):43-8 Details

    Watanabe M, Cromwell HC, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR, Hikosaka K, Schultz W (2001), “Behavioral reactions reflecting differential reward expectations in monkeys.” Exp Brain Res 140(4):511-8 Details

    Schultz W (2000), “Multiple reward signals in the brain.” Nat Rev Neurosci 1(3):199-207 Details

    Schultz W, Dickinson A (2000), “Neuronal coding of prediction errors.” Annu Rev Neurosci 23:473-500 Details

    Schultz W, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR (2000), “Reward processing in primate orbitofrontal cortex and basal ganglia.” Cereb Cortex 10(3):272-84 Details

    Tremblay L, Schultz W (2000), “Modifications of reward expectation-related neuronal activity during learning in primate orbitofrontal cortex.” J Neurophysiol 83(4):1877-85 Details

    Tremblay L, Schultz W (2000), “Reward-related neuronal activity during go-nogo task performance in primate orbitofrontal cortex.” J Neurophysiol 83(4):1864-76 Details

    Suri RE, Schultz W (1999), “A neural network model with dopamine-like reinforcement signal that learns a spatial delayed response task.” Neuroscience 91(3):871-90 Details

    Tremblay L, Schultz W (1999), “Relative reward preference in primate orbitofrontal cortex.” Nature 398(6729):704-8 Details

    Hollerman JR, Schultz W (1998), “Dopamine neurons report an error in the temporal prediction of reward during learning.” Nat Neurosci 1(4):304-9 Details

    Hollerman JR, Tremblay L, Schultz W (1998), “Influence of reward expectation on behavior-related neuronal activity in primate striatum.” J Neurophysiol 80(2):947-63 Details

    Schultz W (1998), “Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons.” J Neurophysiol 80(1):1-27 Details

    Tremblay L, Hollerman JR, Schultz W (1998), “Modifications of reward expectation-related neuronal activity during learning in primate striatum.” J Neurophysiol 80(2):964-77 Details

    Schultz W, Dayan P, Montague PR (1997), “A neural substrate of prediction and reward.” Science 275(5306):1593-9 Details

    Thut G, Schultz W, Roelcke U, Nienhusmeier M, Missimer J, Maguire RP, Leenders KL (1997), “Activation of the human brain by monetary reward.” Neuroreport 8(5):1225-8 Details

    Mirenowicz J, Schultz W (1996), “Preferential activation of midbrain dopamine neurons by appetitive rather than aversive stimuli.” Nature 379(6564):449-51 Details

    Mirenowicz J, Schultz W (1994), “Importance of unpredictability for reward responses in primate dopamine neurons.” J Neurophysiol 72(2):1024-7 Details

    Schultz W, Apicella P, Ljungberg T (1993), “Responses of monkey dopamine neurons to reward and conditioned stimuli during successive steps of learning a delayed response task.” J Neurosci 13(3):900-13 Details

    Apicella P, Scarnati E, Ljungberg T, Schultz W (1992), “Neuronal activity in monkey striatum related to the expectation of predictable environmental events.” J Neurophysiol 68(3):945-60 Details

    Ljungberg T, Apicella P, Schultz W (1992), “Responses of monkey dopamine neurons during learning of behavioral reactions.” J Neurophysiol 67(1):145-63 Details

    Romo R, Scarnati E, Schultz W (1992), “Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements. II. Movement-related activity in the anterior striatum.” Exp Brain Res 91(3):385-95 Details

    Romo R, Schultz W (1992), “Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements. III. Neuronal activity in the supplementary motor area.” Exp Brain Res 91(3):396-407 Details

    Schultz W, Apicella P, Scarnati E, Ljungberg T (1992), “Neuronal activity in monkey ventral striatum related to the expectation of reward.” J Neurosci 12(12):4595-610 Details

    Schultz W, Romo R (1992), “Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements. I. Preparatory activity in the anterior striatum.” Exp Brain Res 91(3):363-84 Details

    Apicella P, Ljungberg T, Scarnati E, Schultz W (1991), “Responses to reward in monkey dorsal and ventral striatum.” Exp Brain Res 85(3):491-500 Details

    Romo R, Schultz W (1990), “Dopamine neurons of the monkey midbrain: contingencies of responses to active touch during self-initiated arm movements.” J Neurophysiol 63(3):592-606 Details

    Schultz W, Romo R (1990), “Dopamine neurons of the monkey midbrain: contingencies of responses to stimuli eliciting immediate behavioral reactions.” J Neurophysiol 63(3):607-24 Details

    Schultz W, Scarnati E, Sundström E, Romo R (1989), “Protection against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism by the catecholamine uptake inhibitor nomifensine: behavioral analysis in monkeys with partial striatal dopamine depletions.” Neuroscience 31(1):219-30 Details

    Schultz W, Studer A, Romo R, Sundström E, Jonsson G, Scarnati E (1989), “Deficits in reaction times and movement times as correlates of hypokinesia in monkeys with MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletion.” J Neurophysiol 61(3):651-68 Details

    Schultz W, Romo R (1988), “Neuronal activity in the monkey striatum during the initiation of movements.” Exp Brain Res 71(2):431-6 Details

    Romo R, Schultz W (1987), “Neuronal activity preceding self-initiated or externally timed arm movements in area 6 of monkey cortex.” Exp Brain Res 67(3):656-62 Details

    Schultz W (1986), “Responses of midbrain dopamine neurons to behavioral trigger stimuli in the monkey.” J Neurophysiol 56(5):1439-61 Details

    Schultz W, Scarnati E, Sundström E, Tsutsumi T, Jonsson G (1986), “The catecholamine uptake blocker nomifensine protects against MPTP-induced parkinsonism in monkeys.” Exp Brain Res 63(1):216-20 Details

    Schultz W (1982), “Depletion of dopamine in the striatum as an experimental model of Parkinsonism: direct effects and adaptive mechanisms.” Prog Neurobiol 18(2-3):121-66 Details

    Ruffieux A, Schultz W (1980), “Dopaminergic activation of reticulata neurones in the substantia nigra.” Nature 285(5762):240-1 Details

    Schultz W, Montgomery EB Jr, Marini R (1979), “Proximal limb movements in response to microstimulation of primate dentate and interpositus nuclei mediated by brain-stem structures.” Brain 102(1):127-46 Details

    Allen GI, Gilbert PF, Marini R, Schultz W, Yin TC (1977), “Integration of cerebral and peripheral inputs by interpositus neurons in monkey.” Exp Brain Res 27(1):81-99 Details

    Hellweg FC, Schultz W, Creutzfeldt OD (1977), “Extracellular and intracellular recordings from cat's cortical whisker projection area: thalamocortical response transformation.” J Neurophysiol 40(3):463-79 Details

    Publications

    2014

    Bermudez MA, Schultz W (2014), “Timing in reward and decision processes.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 369(1637):20120468 Details

    O'Neill M, Schultz W (2014), “Economic risk coding by single neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex.” J Physiol Paris Details

    2013

    Báez-Mendoza R, Schultz W (2013), “The role of the striatum in social behavior.” Front Neurosci 7:233 Details

    2012

    Ariansen JL, Heien ML, Hermans A, Phillips PE, Hernadi I, Bermudez MA, Schultz W, Wightman RM (2012), “Monitoring extracellular pH, oxygen, and dopamine during reward delivery in the striatum of primates.” Front Behav Neurosci 6:36 Details

    Miyapuram KP, Tobler PN, Gregorios-Pippas L, Schultz W (2012), “BOLD responses in reward regions to hypothetical and imaginary monetary rewards.” Neuroimage 59(2):1692-9 Details

    Schultz W (2012), “Risky dopamine.” Biol Psychiatry 71(3):180-1 Details

    2011

    Schultz W (2011), “Potential vulnerabilities of neuronal reward, risk, and decision mechanisms to addictive drugs.” Neuron 69(4):603-17 Details

    Schultz W, O'Neill M, Tobler PN, Kobayashi S (2011), “Neuronal signals for reward risk in frontal cortex.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 1239:109-17 Details

    2010

    Burke CJ, Tobler PN, Schultz W, Baddeley M (2010), “Striatal BOLD Response Reflects the Impact of Herd Information on Financial Decisions.” Front Hum Neurosci 4:48 Details

    Kobayashi S, Pinto de Carvalho O, Schultz W (2010), “Adaptation of reward sensitivity in orbitofrontal neurons.” J Neurosci 30(2):534-44 Details

    Kobayashi S, Schultz W, Sakagami M (2010), “Operant conditioning of primate prefrontal neurons.” J Neurophysiol 103(4):1843-55 Details

    Nomoto K, Schultz W, Watanabe T, Sakagami M (2010), “Temporally extended dopamine responses to perceptually demanding reward-predictive stimuli.” J Neurosci 30(32):10692-702 Details

    O'Neill M, Schultz W (2010), “Coding of reward risk by orbitofrontal neurons is mostly distinct from coding of reward value.” Neuron 68(4):789-800 Details

    Schultz W (2010), “Subjective neuronal coding of reward: temporal value discounting and risk.” Eur J Neurosci 31(12):2124-35 Details

    Schultz W (2010), “Dopamine signals for reward value and risk: basic and recent data.” Behav Brain Funct 6:24 Details

    2009

    Christopoulos GI, Tobler PN, Bossaerts P, Dolan RJ, Schultz W (2009), “Neural correlates of value, risk, and risk aversion contributing to decision making under risk.” J Neurosci 29(40):12574-83 Details

    2008

    Fiorillo CD, Newsome WT, Schultz W (2008), “The temporal precision of reward prediction in dopamine neurons.” Nat Neurosci Details

    Kobayashi S, Schultz W (2008), “Influence of reward delays on responses of dopamine neurons.” J Neurosci 28(31):7837-46 Details

    2007

    Tobler PN, Fletcher PC, Bullmore ET, Schultz W (2007), “Learning-related human brain activations reflecting individual finances.” Neuron 54(1):167-75 Details

    2006

    Blatter K, Schultz W (2006), “Rewarding properties of visual stimuli.” Exp Brain Res 168(4):541-6 Details

    Kobayashi S, Nomoto K, Watanabe M, Hikosaka O, Schultz W, Sakagami M (2006), “Influences of rewarding and aversive outcomes on activity in macaque lateral prefrontal cortex.” Neuron 51(6):861-70 Details

    Schultz W (2006), “Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward.” Annu Rev Psychol 57:87-115 Details

    2005

    Cromwell HC, Hassani OK, Schultz W (2005), “Relative reward processing in primate striatum.” Exp Brain Res 162(4):520-5 Details

    Fiorillo CD, Tobler PN, Schultz W (2005), “Evidence that the delay-period activity of dopamine neurons corresponds to reward uncertainty rather than backpropagating TD errors.” Behav Brain Funct 1(1):7 Details

    2004

    Schultz W (2004), “Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 14(2):139-47 Details

    2003

    Fiorillo CD, Tobler PN, Schultz W (2003), “Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons.” Science 299(5614):1898-902 Details

    Martin-Soelch C, Missimer J, Leenders KL, Schultz W (2003), “Neural activity related to the processing of increasing monetary reward in smokers and nonsmokers.” Eur J Neurosci 18(3):680-8 Details

    Schultz W, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR (2003), “Changes in behavior-related neuronal activity in the striatum during learning.” Trends Neurosci 26(6):321-8 Details

    2001

    Martin-Soelch C, Chevalley AF, Künig G, Missimer J, Magyar S, Mino A, Schultz W, Leenders KL (2001), “Changes in reward-induced brain activation in opiate addicts.” Eur J Neurosci 14(8):1360-8 Details

    Martin-Soelch C, Leenders KL, Chevalley AF, Missimer J, Künig G, Magyar S, Mino A, Schultz W (2001), “Reward mechanisms in the brain and their role in dependence: evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies.” Brain Res Brain Res Rev 36(2-3):139-49 Details

    Martin-Sölch C, Magyar S, Künig G, Missimer J, Schultz W, Leenders KL (2001), “Changes in brain activation associated with reward processing in smokers and nonsmokers. A positron emission tomography study.” Exp Brain Res 139(3):278-86 Details

    Schultz W (2001), “Reward signaling by dopamine neurons.” Neuroscientist 7(4):293-302 Details

    2000

    Cavada C, Schultz W (2000), “The mysterious orbitofrontal cortex. foreword” Cereb Cortex 10(3):205 Details

    Hollerman JR, Tremblay L, Schultz W (2000), “Involvement of basal ganglia and orbitofrontal cortex in goal-directed behavior.” Prog Brain Res 126:193-215 Details

    Künig G, Leenders KL, Martin-Sölch C, Missimer J, Magyar S, Schultz W (2000), “Reduced reward processing in the brains of Parkinsonian patients.” Neuroreport 11(17):3681-7 Details

    1999

    Contreras-Vidal JL, Schultz W (1999), “A predictive reinforcement model of dopamine neurons for learning approach behavior.” J Comput Neurosci 6(3):191-214 Details

    Schultz W (1999), “The Reward Signal of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons.” News Physiol Sci 14:249-255 Details

    1998

    Schultz W (1998), “The phasic reward signal of primate dopamine neurons.” Adv Pharmacol 42:686-90 Details

    Schultz W, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR (1998), “Reward prediction in primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex.” Neuropharmacology 37(4-5):421-9 Details

    Suri RE, Schultz W (1998), “Learning of sequential movements by neural network model with dopamine-like reinforcement signal.” Exp Brain Res 121(3):350-4 Details

    1997

    Schultz W (1997), “Dopamine neurons and their role in reward mechanisms.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 7(2):191-7 Details

    1995

    Guigon E, Dorizzi B, Burnod Y, Schultz W (1995), “Neural correlates of learning in the prefrontal cortex of the monkey: a predictive model.” Cereb Cortex 5(2):135-47 Details

    1994

    Schultz W (1994), “Behavior-related activity of primate dopamine neurons.” Rev Neurol (Paris) 150(8-9):634-9 Details

    1993

    Galbraith GC, Schultz W (1993), “Perceptual adaptation in the vestibulo-ocular system: EEG correlates of spatial and temporal rearrangement.” Percept Mot Skills 77(2):595-608 Details

    Schultz W, Apicella P, Ljungberg T, Romo R, Scarnati E (1993), “Reward-related activity in the monkey striatum and substantia nigra.” Prog Brain Res 99:227-35 Details

    1991

    Apicella P, Scarnati E, Schultz W (1991), “Tonically discharging neurons of monkey striatum respond to preparatory and rewarding stimuli.” Exp Brain Res 84(3):672-5 Details

    Ljungberg T, Apicella P, Schultz W (1991), “Responses of monkey midbrain dopamine neurons during delayed alternation performance.” Brain Res 567(2):337-41 Details

    1989

    Romo R, Schultz W (1989), “Somatosensory input to dopamine neurones of the monkey midbrain: responses to pain pinch under anaesthesia and to active touch in behavioural context.” Prog Brain Res 80:473-8; discussion 465-6 Details

    Schultz W, Romo R, Scarnati E, Sundström E, Jonsson G, Studer A (1989), “Saccadic reaction times, eye-arm coordination and spontaneous eye movements in normal and MPTP-treated monkeys.” Exp Brain Res 78(2):253-67 Details

    1988

    Schultz W (1988), “MPTP-induced parkinsonism in monkeys: mechanism of action, selectivity and pathophysiology.” Gen Pharmacol 19(2):153-61 Details

    Studer A, Sundström E, Jonsson G, Schultz W (1988), “Acute electrophysiological and neurochemical effects of administration of MPTP in mice.” Neuropharmacology 27(9):923-31 Details

    1987

    Schultz W, Romo R (1987), “Responses of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons to high-intensity somatosensory stimulation in the anesthetized monkey.” J Neurophysiol 57(1):201-17 Details

    Studer A, Schultz W (1987), “The catecholamine uptake inhibitor nomifensine depresses impulse activity of dopamine neurons in mouse substantia nigra.” Neurosci Lett 80(2):207-12 Details

    1986

    Schultz W (1986), “Activity of pars reticulata neurons of monkey substantia nigra in relation to motor, sensory, and complex events.” J Neurophysiol 55(4):660-77 Details

    1985

    Romo R, Schultz W (1985), “Prolonged changes in dopaminergic terminal excitability and short changes in dopaminergic neuron discharge rate after short peripheral stimulation in monkey.” Neurosci Lett 62(3):335-40 Details

    Schultz W, Studer A, Jonsson G, Sundström E, Mefford I (1985), “Deficits in behavioral initiation and execution processes in monkeys with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism.” Neurosci Lett 59(2):225-32 Details

    Toan DL, Schultz W (1985), “Responses of rat pallidum cells to cortex stimulation and effects of altered dopaminergic activity.” Neuroscience 15(3):683-94 Details

    1984

    Aebischer P, Schultz W (1984), “The activity of pars compacta neurons of the monkey substantia nigra is depressed by apomorphine.” Neurosci Lett 50(1-3):25-9 Details

    Schultz W (1984), “Recent physiological and pathophysiological aspects of Parkinsonian movement disorders.” Life Sci 34(23):2213-23 Details

    1981

    Ruffieux A, Schultz W (1981), “[Influence of dopamine on pars reticulata neurones of substantia nigra (author's transl)].” J Physiol (Paris) 77(1):63-9 Details

    Schultz W, Wiesendanger R, Hess B, Ruffieux A, Wiesendanger M (1981), “The somatotopy of the gracile nucleus in cats with agenesis of a hindfoot.” Exp Brain Res 43(3-4):413-8 Details

    1978

    Schultz W, Ungerstedt U (1978), “Striatal cell supersensitivity to apomorphine in dopamine-lesioned rats correlated to behaviour.” Neuropharmacology 17(6):349-53 Details

    Schultz W, Ungerstedt U (1978), “A method to detect and record from striatal cells of low spontaneous activity by stimulating the corticostriatal pathway.” Brain Res 142(2):357-62 Details

    Ungerstedt U, Ljungberg T, Schultz W (1978), “Dopamine receptor mechanisms: behavioral and electrophysiological studies.” Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 19:311-21 Details

    Zangger P, Schultz W (1978), “The activity of cells of nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis during spontaneous locomotion in the decorticate cat.” Neurosci Lett 7(2-3):95-9 Details

    1976

    Schultz W, Galbraith GC, Gottschaldt KM, Creutzfeldt OD (1976), “A comparison of primary afferent and cortical neurone activity coding sinus hair movements in the cat.” Exp Brain Res 24(4):365-81 Details

    Schultz W, Montgomery EB Jr, Marini R (1976), “Stereotyped flexion of forelimb and hindlimb to microstimulation of dentate nucleus in cebus monkeys.” Brain Res 107(1):151-1 Details