Professor Roger Carpenter MA PhD ScD

Roger Carpenter

University position


Professor Roger Carpenter MA PhD ScD is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.


Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience

Home page (personal home page)

Research Themes

Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience

Clinical and Veterinary Neuroscience


I work on the brain mechanisms of human decision. The most common decision we make - two or three times every second - is what to look at next, and the measurement of the time taken to choose to look at a visual target - the saccadic latency - has turned out to be a highly informative way of studying the underlying neural decision mechanisms. This work has given rise to a model, LATER (Linear Approach to Threshold with Ergodic Rate), that is essentially Bayesian but with an added random component whose function appears to be to make our actions unpredictable (useful in predator-prey situations) and also to make our exploratory and creative behaviours more effective.

Modern technological advances mean that we can measure saccades rapidly and non-invasively, using portable micro-miniature devices, in the clinic or at the bedside, and this has led to an ever-increasing range of clinical applications, from PD and HD, through cerebrovascular impairment to metabolic and liver disorders.

A head-mounted saccadometer with built-in laser target projectors
A head-mounted saccadometer with built-in laser target projectors
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Research Focus



eye movement


reaction time

Clinical conditions

Cognitive impairment

Liver disorders

Metabolic disorders


Behavioural analysis




Roger Barker

United Kingdom

Iain Gilchrist Web:


Andrew Anderson Web:

Yasin Temel Web:

Associated News Items

Key publications

Carpenter RH, Reddi BA, Anderson AJ (2009), “A simple two-stage model predicts response time distributions.” J Physiol 587(Pt 16):4051-62 Details

Temel Y, Visser-Vandewalle V, Carpenter RH (2008), “Saccadic latency during electrical stimulation of the human subthalamic nucleus.” Curr Biol 18(10):R412-4 Details

Carpenter RH, Williams ML (1995), “Neural computation of log likelihood in control of saccadic eye movements.” Nature 377(6544):59-62 Details



Ameqrane I, Pouget P, Wattiez N, Carpenter R, Missal M (2014), “Implicit and explicit timing in oculomotor control.” PLoS One 9(4):e93958 Details

Anderson AJ, Stainer MJ, Brotchie P, Carpenter RH (2014), “Target direction rather than position determines oculomotor expectation in repeating sequences.” Exp Brain Res Details

Noorani I, Carpenter RH (2014), “Re-starting a neural race: anti-saccade correction.” Eur J Neurosci 39(1):159-64 Details


Antoniades C, Ettinger U, Gaymard B, Gilchrist I, Kristjánsson A, Kennard C, John Leigh R, Noorani I, Pouget P, Smyrnis N, Tarnowski A, Zee DS, Carpenter RH (2013), “An internationally standardised antisaccade protocol.” Vision Res 84:1-5 Details

Antoniades CA, Xu Z, Carpenter RH, Barker RA (2013), “The relationship between abnormalities of saccadic and manual response times in Parkinson's disease.” J Parkinsons Dis 3(4):557-63 Details

Burrell JR, Carpenter RH, Hodges JR, Kiernan MC (2013), “Early saccades in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.” Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 14(4):294-301 Details

Ghosh BC, Carpenter RH, Rowe JB (2013), “A longitudinal study of motor, oculomotor and cognitive function in progressive supranuclear palsy.” PLoS One 8(9):e74486 Details

Noorani I, Carpenter RH (2013), “Antisaccades as decisions: LATER model predicts latency distributions and error responses.” Eur J Neurosci 37(2):330-8 Details


Antoniades CA, Buttery P, FitzGerald JJ, Barker RA, Carpenter RH, Watts C (2012), “Deep brain stimulation: eye movements reveal anomalous effects of electrode placement and stimulation.” PLoS One 7(3):e32830 Details

Antoniades CA, Carpenter RH (2012), “Making neurology quantitative.” Neuroreport 23(9):572-5 Details

Antoniades CA, Carpenter RH, Temel Y (2012), “Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease: similar improvements in saccadic and manual responses.” Neuroreport 23(3):179-83 Details

Antoniades CA, Ober J, Hicks S, Siuda G, Carpenter RH, Kennard C, Nemeth AH (2012), “Statistical characteristics of finger-tapping data in Huntington's disease.” Med Biol Eng Comput 50(4):341-6 Details

Burrell JR, Hornberger M, Carpenter RH, Kiernan MC, Hodges JR (2012), “Saccadic abnormalities in frontotemporal dementia.” Neurology 78(23):1816-23 Details

Chandna A, Chandrasekharan DP, Ramesh AV, Carpenter RH (2012), “Altered interictal saccadic reaction time in migraine: a cross-sectional study.” Cephalalgia 32(6):473-80 Details


Carpenter RH (2011), “What Sherrington missed: the ubiquity of the neural integrator.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 1233:208-13 Details

Dawson C, Murphy E, Maritz C, Chan H, Ellerton C, Carpenter RH, Lachmann RH (2011), “Dietary treatment of phenylketonuria: the effect of phenylalanine on reaction time.” J Inherit Metab Dis 34(2):449-54 Details

Noorani I, Carpenter RH (2011), “Full reaction time distributions reveal the complexity of neural decision-making.” Eur J Neurosci 33(11):1948-51 Details

Noorani I, Gao MJ, Pearson BC, Carpenter RH (2011), “Predicting the timing of wrong decisions with LATER.” Exp Brain Res 209(4):587-98 Details

Perneczky R, Ghosh BC, Hughes L, Carpenter RH, Barker RA, Rowe JB (2011), “Saccadic latency in Parkinson's disease correlates with executive function and brain atrophy, but not motor severity.” Neurobiol Dis 43(1):79-85 Details

Roos JC, Lachmann RH, Carpenter RH, Cox TM (2011), “Latency vs saccadic parameters in lysosomal trials.” Ophthalmology 118(4):794-794.e1 Details


Anderson AJ, Carpenter RH (2010), “Saccadic latency in deterministic environments: getting back on track after the unexpected happens.” J Vis 10(14):12 Details

Antoniades CA, Xu Z, Mason SL, Carpenter RH, Barker RA (2010), “Huntington's disease: changes in saccades and hand-tapping over 3 years.” J Neurol 257(11):1890-8 Details

Halliday J, Carpenter RH (2010), “The effect of cognitive distraction on saccadic latency.” Perception 39(1):41-50 Details

Krismer F, Roos JC, Schranz M, Graziadei IW, Mechtcheriakov S, Vogel W, Carpenter RH, Zoller H (2010), “Saccadic latency in hepatic encephalopathy: a pilot study.” Metab Brain Dis 25(3):285-95 Details

Nouraei SA, Roos JC, Walsh SR, Ober JK, Gaunt ME, Carpenter RH (2010), “Objective assessment of the hemisphere-specific neurological outcome of carotid endarterectomy: a quantitative saccadometric analysis.” Neurosurgery 67(6):1534-41 Details

Walsh SR, Nouraei SA, Tang TY, Sadat U, Carpenter RH, Gaunt ME (2010), “Remote ischemic preconditioning for cerebral and cardiac protection during carotid endarterectomy: results from a pilot randomized clinical trial.” Vasc Endovascular Surg 44(6):434-9 Details


Story GW, Carpenter RH (2009), “Dual LATER-unit model predicts saccadic reaction time distributions in gap, step and appearance tasks.” Exp Brain Res 193(2):287-96 Details

Temel Y, Visser-Vandewalle V, Carpenter RH (2009), “Saccadometry: a novel clinical tool for quantification of the motor effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.” Exp Neurol 216(2):481-9 Details


Anderson AJ, Carpenter RH (2008), “The effect of stimuli that isolate S-cones on early saccades and the gap effect.” Proc Biol Sci 275(1632):335-44 Details

Anderson AJ, Yadav H, Carpenter RH (2008), “Directional prediction by the saccadic system.” Curr Biol 18(8):614-8 Details

Carpenter R (2008), “Beyond the impact factory.” Curr Biol 18(16):R687 Details

Nouraei SA, Carpenter RH (2008), “Development of a planimetry software for digitising printed graphs and historical clinical investigations.” Clin Otolaryngol 33(5):506-7 Details

Nouraei SA, Lloyd-Hughes H, Saleh HA, Carpenter RH (2008), “Development of a software for objective assessment of facial symmetry.” Clin Otolaryngol 33(6):637-8 Details

Roos JC, Calandrini DM, Carpenter RH (2008), “A single mechanism for the timing of spontaneous and evoked saccades.” Exp Brain Res Details


Antoniades CA, Altham PM, Mason SL, Barker RA, Carpenter R (2007), “Saccadometry: a new tool for evaluating presymptomatic Huntington patients.” Neuroreport 18(11):1133-6 Details

Antoniades CA, Bak TH, Carpenter RH, Hodges JR, Barker RA (2007), “Diagnostic potential of saccadometry in progressive supranuclear palsy.” Biomark Med 1(4):487-90 Details

Carpenter RH, McDonald SA (2007), “LATER predicts saccade latency distributions in reading.” Exp Brain Res 177(2):176-83 Details

Emeric EE, Brown JW, Boucher L, Carpenter RH, Hanes DP, Harris R, Logan GD, Mashru RN, Paré M, Pouget P, Stuphorn V, Taylor TL, Schall JD (2007), “Influence of history on saccade countermanding performance in humans and macaque monkeys.” Vision Res 47(1):35-49 Details

Oswal A, Ogden M, Carpenter RH (2007), “The time course of stimulus expectation in a saccadic decision task.” J Neurophysiol 97(4):2722-30 Details

Pearson BC, Armitage KR, Horner CW, Carpenter RH (2007), “Saccadometry: the possible application of latency distribution measurement for monitoring concussion.” Br J Sports Med 41(9):610-2 Details

Reddi BA, Carpenter RH (2007), “Venous return: cardiomythology?” Clin Med 7(1):35-6 Details


Ali FR, Michell AW, Barker RA, Carpenter RH (2006), “The use of quantitative oculometry in the assessment of Huntington's disease.” Exp Brain Res 169(2):237-45 Details

Ali FR, Michell AW, Barker RA, Carpenter RHS (2006), “The use of quantitative oculometry in the assessment of Huntington's disease” Experimental Brain Research 169:237-45

Anderson AJ, Carpenter RH (2006), “Changes in expectation consequent on experience, modeled by a simple, forgetful neural circuit.” J Vis 6(8):822-35 Details

Anderson AJ, Carpenter RHS (2006), “Changes in expectation consequent on experience, modelled by a simple, forgetful neural circuit” Journal of Vision 6:822-835

Carpenter RH (2006), “Peer review. Peerless review.” J R Soc Med 99(8):384-5 Details

Michell AW, Xu Z, Fritz D, Lewis SJ, Foltynie T, Williams-Gray CH, Robbins TW, Carpenter RH, Barker RA (2006), “Saccadic latency distributions in Parkinson's disease and the effects of L-dopa.” Exp Brain Res 174(1):7-18 Details

Sinha N, Brown JT, Carpenter RH (2006), “Task switching as a two-stage decision process.” J Neurophysiol 95(5):3146-53 Details

Taylor MJ, Carpenter RH, Anderson AJ (2006), “A noisy transform predicts saccadic and manual reaction times to changes in contrast.” J Physiol 573(Pt 3):741-51 Details


Carpenter RH (2005), “Visual pursuit: an instructive area of cortex.” Curr Biol 15(16):R638-40 Details

McDonald SA, Carpenter RH, Shillcock RC (2005), “An anatomically constrained, stochastic model of eye movement control in reading.” Psychol Rev 112(4):814-40 Details

Reddi BA, Carpenter RH (2005), “Venous excess: a new approach to cardiovascular control and its teaching.” J Appl Physiol (1985) 98(1):356-64 Details


Carpenter R (2004), “Roger Carpenter.” Curr Biol 14(22):R941 Details

Carpenter RH (2004), “Homeostasis: a plea for a unified approach.” Adv Physiol Educ 28(1-4):180-7 Details

Carpenter RH (2004), “Contrast, probability, and saccadic latency; evidence for independence of detection and decision.” Curr Biol 14(17):1576-80 Details

Carpenter RH (2004), “Supplementary eye field: keeping an eye on eye movement.” Curr Biol 14(11):R416-8 Details

Jones JG, Carpenter RH (2004), “Excessive daytime sleepiness and driving: regulations for road safety.” Clin Med 4(6):595; author reply 595-6 Details

Tone CM, Cardoza DM, Carpenter RH, Draghia-Akli R (2004), “Long-term effects of plasmid-mediated growth hormone releasing hormone in dogs.” Cancer Gene Ther 11(5):389-96 Details


Draghia-Akli R, Cummings KK, Khan AS, Brown PA, Carpenter RH (2003), “Effects of plasmid-mediated growth hormone releasing hormone supplementation in young, healthy Beagle dogs.” J Anim Sci 81(9):2301-10 Details

Nouraei SA, De Pennington N, Jones JG, Carpenter RH (2003), “Dose-related effect of sevoflurane sedation on higher control of eye movements and decision making.” Br J Anaesth 91(2):175-83 Details

Reddi BA, Asrress KN, Carpenter RH (2003), “Accuracy, information, and response time in a saccadic decision task.” J Neurophysiol 90(5):3538-46 Details

Reddi BAJ, Asrress KN, Carpenter RHS (2003), “Accuracy, information and response time in a saccadic decision task” Journal of Neurophysiology 90:3538-46


Carpenter RH (2002), “Reaching out: Cortical Mechanisms of Directed Action.” Curr Biol 12(15):R517-9 Details

Carpenter RH, Descamps MJ, Morley CH, Leary TS, Jones JG (2002), “The effect of low dose sevoflurane on saccadic eye movement latency.” Anaesthesia 57(9):855-9 Details

Draghia-Akli R, Hahn KA, King GK, Cummings KK, Carpenter RH (2002), “Effects of plasmid-mediated growth hormone-releasing hormone in severely debilitated dogs with cancer.” Mol Ther 6(6):830-6 Details

Draghia-Akli R, Khan AS, Cummings KK, Parghi D, Carpenter RH, Brown PA (2002), “Electrical enhancement of formulated plasmid delivery in animals.” Technol Cancer Res Treat 1(5):365-72 Details

Zarei M, Nouraei SA, Caine D, Hodges JR, Carpenter RH (2002), “Neuropsychological and quantitative oculometric study of a case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease at predementia stage.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 73(1):56-8 Details


Asrress KN, Carpenter RH (2001), “Saccadic countermanding: a comparison of central and peripheral stop signals.” Vision Res 41(20):2645-51 Details

Carpenter RH (2001), “Express saccades: is bimodality a result of the order of stimulus presentation?” Vision Res 41(9):1145-51 Details

Jandziol AK, Prabhu M, Carpenter RH, Jones JG (2001), “Blink duration as a measure of low-level anaesthetic sedation.” Eur J Anaesthesiol 18(7):476-84 Details

Leach JC, Carpenter RH (2001), “Saccadic choice with asynchronous targets: evidence for independent randomisation.” Vision Res 41(25-26):3437-45 Details


Carpenter RH (2000), “The neural control of looking.” Curr Biol 10(8):R291-3 Details

Reddi BA, Carpenter RH (2000), “The influence of urgency on decision time.” Nat Neurosci 3(8):827-30 Details


Carpenter RH (1999), “Visual selection: Neurons that make up their minds.” Curr Biol 9(16):R595-8 Details

Hanes DP, Carpenter RH (1999), “Countermanding saccades in humans.” Vision Res 39(16):2777-91 Details

Khan O, Taylor SJ, Jones JG, Swart M, Hanes DP, Carpenter RH (1999), “Effects of low-dose isoflurane on saccadic eye movement generation.” Anaesthesia 54(2):142-5 Details


Carpenter RH (1997), “Sensorimotor processing: charting the frontier.” Curr Biol 7(6):R348-51 Details


Carpenter RH (1995), “Movement control. Moving the mental maps.” Curr Biol 5(10):1082-4 Details

Kinsler V, Carpenter RH (1995), “Saccadic eye movements while reading music.” Vision Res 35(10):1447-58 Details

Merrison AF, Carpenter RH (1995), “"Express" smooth pursuit.” Vision Res 35(10):1459-62 Details


Carpenter RH (1994), “Frontal cortex. Choosing where to look.” Curr Biol 4(4):341-3 Details

Merrison AF, Carpenter RH (1994), “Co-variability of smooth and saccadic latencies in oculomotor pursuit.” Ophthalmic Res 26(3):158-62 Details


Carpenter RH (1993), “Beyond the Darrow-Yannet diagram: an enhanced plot for body fluid spaces and osmolality.” Lancet 342(8877):968-70 Details

Carpenter RH (1993), “Distribution of quick-phase intervals in optokinetic nystagmus.” Ophthalmic Res 25(2):91-3 Details


Carpenter RH (1992), “Turning vision into action.” Curr Biol 2(6):288-90 Details


Carpenter RH (1978), “Diffusion not the cause of after-image blurring.” Vision Res 18(7):837-9 Details


Carpenter RH (1974), “Technical note. An inexpensive servo-controlled "wedge".” Vision Res 14(11):1269-70 Details


Carpenter RH (1973), “Contour-like phosphenes from electrical stimulation of the human eye: some new observations.” J Physiol 229(3):767-85 Details

Carpenter RH, Blakemore C (1973), “Interactions between orientations in human vision.” Exp Brain Res 18(3):287-303 Details


Carpenter RH (1972), “After-images on backgrounds of different luminance: a new phenomenon and a hypothesis.” J Physiol 226(3):713-24 Details

Carpenter RH (1972), “A simple teaching aid for elementary membrane electrophysiology.” J Physiol 226(2):16P Details

Carpenter RH (1972), “Electrical stimulation of the human eye in different adaptational states.” J Physiol 221(1):137-48 Details


Campbell FW, Carpenter RH, Switkes E (1971), “Simple scanning devices for computer modelling of visual processes.” J Physiol 217 Suppl:18P-19P Details


Blakemore C, Carpenter RH (1970), “A very simple device to measure human eye movements.” J Physiol 210(2):75P-77P Details

Blakemore C, Carpenter RH, Georgeson MA (1970), “Lateral inhibition between orientation detectors in the human visual system.” Nature 228(5266):37-9 Details


Campbell FW, Carpenter RH, Levinson JZ (1969), “Visibility of aperiodic patterns compared with that of sinusoidal gratings.” J Physiol 204(2):283-98 Details


Wolff JG, Delacour J, Carpenter RH, Brindley GS (1968), “The patterns seen when alternating electric current is passed through the eye.” Q J Exp Psychol 20(1):1-10 Details


Brindley GS, Carpenter RH, Rushton DN (1967), “Reaction times for simple shape discriminations requiring one or both visual cortices.” Q J Exp Psychol 19(1):70-2 Details